The Use of Microwaves for the Automated Production of Radiopharmaceuticals

  • Sharon Stone-Elander
  • Nils Elander


The first reports of the use of microwaves to effect chemical transformations for use in PET radiochemistry appeared in 1982–1984. These applications were gas phase transformations in microwave discharges to produce radiolabelling precursors and were reported by the Cyclotron Corporation in Berkeley1, the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York1,2 and the Kitasato University in Kanagawa, Japan3. The PET group in St. Louis, Mo. broke the barrier for using microwaves in liquid phase radiolabelling reactions4 in 1987 with their report on the use of a microwave oven to reduce radiolabelling times and increase end-of-synthesis yields in nucleophilic radiofluorinations and- iodinations. The number of papers presented using microwaves in PET radiochemistry since 1987 parallels the increasing number of applications reported in other areas of chemistry (for reviews see Abramovitch5 and Mingos and Baghurst6) and reflects the growing realization that this technique can help radiochemists speed up difficult synthetic transformations requiring long reaction times and stringent conditions. Research groups at the Liége University in Belgium, Groningen University Hospital in the Netherlands, Karolinska Institute in Sweden, Kettering Medical Center in Ohio, University of Tennesee at Knoxville and Chedoke-McMaster Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario have reported using microwaves in radiotracer syntheses. This technology is expected to spread even more as more user-adapted microwave devices become available.


Methyl Iodide Microwave Field Microwave Treatment Microwave Cavity Diethyl Oxalate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon Stone-Elander
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nils Elander
    • 3
  1. 1.Karolinska PharmacySweden
  2. 2.Clinical NeurophysiologyKarolinska InstituteSweden
  3. 3.Manne Siegbahn Institute of PhysicsStockholmSweden

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