Chemical Modification and Some Cross-linking Reactions of Water-Soluble Polymers

  • C. A. Finch


Many chemical reactions of water-soluble polymers are possible, depending on the presence of reactive groups attached to a polymer chain able to combine with other water-soluble polymers (polymeric or otherwise) under conditions which do not significantly degrade the polymer. Since the property of water solubility implies the presence of a substantial number of polar groups in the molecule, the potential and, indeed, the actual degree of complexity of chemical behaviour is considerable. It is therefore worth establishing some simple principles, common to most water-soluble polymers, which describe the actual or possible cross-linking reactions. In general, and with a considerable degree of over-simplification, ‘chemical modification’ can be considered as a part-way stage towards the cross-linking which results in a more rigid, and possibly less soluble, molecular structure.


Chemical Modification Polyvinyl Alcohol Polymethacrylic Acid Terephthaloyl Chloride Hypobromous Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

General Reading

  1. H. Morawetz, ‘Macromolecules in Solution’. 2nd. Ed. 1975:New York. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  2. R.L. Davidson (Ed.), ‘Handbook of Water-soluble Gums and Resins’ 3rd. Ed. 1980: New York. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  3. N.M. Bikales (Ed.), ‘Water-Soluble Polymers’ (A.C.S. Symposium, 1972) 1973:New York. Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  4. S.P. Rowland (Ed.), ‘Water in Polymers’ (A.C.S. Symposium, 1979) 1980: New York. American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  5. S.C. Temin, ‘Cross-linking’ in ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science & Technology’ (Ed. by H.F. Mark et al.) 1966:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 4, 331–398.Google Scholar
  6. E.A. MacGregor and C.T. Greenwood, ‘Polymers in Nature’. 1980:Chiehester John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  7. A.G. Ward and A. Courts (Eds.), ‘Science and Technology of. Gelatin’ 1977: London. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. A. Veis, ‘Macromolecular chemistry of Gelatin’. 1965:New York. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. R.A. Milch, ‘Reaction of certain aliphatic aldehydes with gelatin’ Gerontologia, 1964/1965, 10, 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Synthetic hydroxy-polymers

  1. C.A. Finch (Ed.), ‘Polyvinyl Alcohol: Properties and Applications’ 1973:Chiehester. Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  2. O. Wichterle, ‘Hydrogels’ in ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science & Technology’ (Ed. by H.F. Mark et al.) 1971:New York. John Wiley & Sons. vol.15, pp.273–291.Google Scholar
  3. M.F. Refugo, ‘Contact Lenses’, ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science & Technology’.,1977, Suppl. vol.1, pp.195–219.Google Scholar
  4. M.F. Refugo, ‘Contact Lenses’ in ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ (Ed. M.F. Grayson et al.) 1979:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol.6, pp.720–742.Google Scholar
  5. D.C. Pedley, P.J. Skelly and B.J. Tighe, ‘Hydrogels in biomedical applications’ Br.polym.J.,1980, 12, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. G. Manecke and P. Reuter, ‘Reactions on and with Polymers’ Pure & Applied Chenu, 1979,51, 2313–2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Y.L. Metzler (Ed.), ‘Water Soluble Polymers — Developments since 1978’ (summary of U.S. Patent literature) 1981: Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Data Corporation (and earlier volumes).Google Scholar


  1. 1.
    P.J. Flory, J. Amer.chem.Soc, 1941, 63, 3083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.H. Stockmayer, J.chem.Phys., 1945, 11, 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Gordon and J. A. Torkington, Pure & Applied Chem., 1981, 53, 1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.J. Flory, ‘Principles of Polymer Science’. 1953:Ithaca. Cornell University Press. pp.356–361.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Kuhn and G. Balmer, J.polymer Sci., 1962, 57, 311; K.W. Kilb, ibid.,1959, 38, 403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.G. Ward and A. Courts (Eds.), ‘Science and Technology of Gelatin’, 1977:London. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.J. Flory and J. Reiher, J.chem.Phys.,1943,11,521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.J. Flory, Disc. Faraday Soc., 1974, 57, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. A. Radley (Ed.), ‘Industrial Uses of Starch and its Derivatives’. 1976: London, Applied Science Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. A. Radley (Ed.), ‘Starch and its Derivatives’, 1968:London. Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. T. Marsh, ‘Self-Smoothing Fabrics’, 1962:London. Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.H. Nissan, G. Khunger and S.S. Sterstein, in ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science & Technology’ (Ed. by H.F. Mark et al.), 1965: New York. John Wiley & Sons, Vol.3, pp.131–226.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.P. Rowland, ‘Cellulose — Distribution of Substituents’, Encyclopedia of Polymer Science & Technology, 1977, Suppl. Vol. 1, 146–175.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Stainsby, in Ref 6, p.179.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.C. Clark and A. Courts, in Ref.6, p.209.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Sanger, Biochem.J., 1945, 39, 507.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.C. Mullen, J.soc.Leather Trades chem., 1962, 46, 162.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E.g. Fuji Photo Film Co., Brit.Pat. 1,022,656 (1966).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ref.6, p.218.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.W. Kenchington, Biochem.J., 1958, 68, 458.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Agfa A.G., Belg.Pat. 662,606 (1965).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.G. Hoare and D.E. Koshland, J. Amer.chem.Soc., 1966, 88, 2507.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    See D.M. Burness and J. Pouradier in ‘Theory of the Photographic Process’ (Ed.T.H. James) 4th. Ed. 1977:New York. Macmillan. pp. 77–87.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E.g.H. Sera, T. Ishii, J. Yamaguchi and H. Shiraishi (to Fuji Photo Film Co.), U.S.Pat.4,173,481 (1979).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Emoto, K. Yabuta, K. Yamashita and K. Futaki (to Mitsubishi Paper Mills), U.S.Pat. 4,134,770 (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gevaert Photo-Producten N.V., Brit.Pat. 990, 275 (1965).Google Scholar
  27. P. Alexander, M. Fox, K.A. Stacey and L.F. Smith, Biochem.J., 1952, 52, 177.Google Scholar
  28. H. Bestian, Ann.chim.,1950, 506, 210.Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    See Ref. 6, pp.226,229, and also R.J. Croome and D.B. Thomas(to P. Leiner & Sons Ltd.) U.S.Pat.4,072,624 (1978).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    E.g. C.F.H. Allen, R.H. Talbot, J. Yuderson and D.A. Smith, U.S.Pat. 3,047,394 (1962); VEB Filmfabrik Agfa Wolfen, Ger.Pat.1, 085, 663 (1960); D.M. Burness, U.S.Pat.3, 189,459 (1965).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    W.O. Kenyon, D.A. Smith, and E.W. Taylor, U.S.Pat.3, 220, 864 (1965).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    B.H. Kress, U.S.Pat.2, 868, 773 (1959).Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    A. Courts and P. Homan, J.appl.polymer Sci., 1972, 22, 1253, and also Ref. 6, p.232.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    B.E. Tabor, J.appl.polymer Sci., 1968, 12, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    I.D. Robinson, J.appl.polymer Sci. 1964, 8, 1903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    P. Davis and B.R. Tabor, J.polymer Sci., A, 1963, 1, 799.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    J. H. Bowes and C.W. Cater, Biochim.biophys. Acta, 1968, 168, 341; J.appl.Chem.,1965, 15, 296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    J. H. Bowes, C.W. Cater, and M.J. Ellis, J. Amer.leather Chem.Assoc., 1965, 60, 275.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    E.g. R.A. Jeffreys, B.E. Tabor, and D.M. Burness, U.S.Pat.3,034,894 (1962), 3,057,723 (1962),3,062,652 (1962); Kodak Ltd., Brit.Pat. 921, 120 (1963), 928, 591 (1963).Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    C.F.H. Allen and T.M. Laakso, U.S.Pat.2, 726, 162 (1955); 2, 816, 125 (1957).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    C.F.H. Allen and B.H. Carroll, U.S.Pat.2, 725, 295 (1955).Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    N. Yamamoto and Y. Oishi, U.S.Pat. 3, 325, 287 (1967).Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    R. Ohi, N. Yamamoto and K. Hori, in ‘Photographic Gelatin’ (Ed. R.H. Cox) 1972:London. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    In R.L. Whistler, ‘Industrial Gums’, 1973:New York. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    See, e.g. B.K. Green (to National Cash Register Co. Inc)U.S.Pat. Reissue 24, 899 (1960); 2,800,457.Google Scholar
  46. A. Kondo, ‘Microcapsule Processing and Technology’ 1979:New York. Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  47. R.E. Sparkes, ‘Microencapsulation’ in ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 3rd. Ed. (Ed. M. Grayson et al.) 1981:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 15.Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    Ref. 6, p.238.Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    For detailed References, see especially K. Noro in ‘Polyvinyl Alcohol: Properties and Applications’ (Ed. C.A. Finch). 1973: Chiehester. John Wiley & Sons. Chapters 3 and 4.Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    A.S. Dunn, Chem. & Ind.,1980,801.Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    See, e.g. J. G. Pritchard ‘Poly(vinyl alcohol): Basic Properties and Uses’ 1970:London. Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    C.A. Finch, ‘Polyvinyl Alcohol: Properties and Applications’ 1973:Chichester. John Wiley & Sons. Chapter 9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Finch
    • 1
  1. 1.Weston Turville Aylesbury, Bucks.UK

Personalised recommendations