Methods of Polymerization for Preparation of Water-Soluble Polymers

  • R. A. M. Thomson

Abstract

Water-soluble polymers may be grouped under three main headings:
  1. (i)

    naturally occurring;

     
  2. (ii)

    semi-synthetic, in which inherently insoluble polymers are modified by suitable chemical treatment in order to disturb their normal structures and enhance their interaction with water;

     
  3. (iii)

    completely synthetic polymers which are produced by condensation, addition, or ring-opening polymerization.

     

Keywords

Acrylic Acid Methacrylic Acid Vinyl Ether Redox System Water Soluble Polymer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N.M. Bikales, ‘Polymer Science and Technology. Vol. 2, Water Soluble Polymers’. 1973:New York. Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y.L. Meltzer, ‘Water Soluble Polymers — Recent Developments’ Chemical Technology Review No.126. 1979:Park Ridge, New Jersey. Noyes Data Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.M. Shawki, ‘Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Polymers’, Diss.Abstr.Int., B, Natl.Lib.Canada, Ottawa, 39(9), 4485, (1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.L. Davidson (Ed.), ‘Handbook of Water-Soluble Gums and Resins’ 1980: New York. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.C. McWilliams, ‘Acrylamide’, in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 3rd. Ed. (Ed. M. Grayson et al.) 1978:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 1, p.298.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ‘Chemistry of Acrylamide’, Bulletin PRC 109. Process Chemical Review. American Cyanamid Co. 1969:Wayne, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ‘Technical Aspects — Aqueous acrylamide’. Dow Chemical Co. 1976: Midland, Michigan.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T.C.-L. Shen, ‘Controlled polymerization of acrylamide to produce Copolymers with unique solution and viscosity Properties’. Diss.Abstr.Int., B, Natl.Lib.Canada, Ottawa, 38, 2289, (1977).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.R. Sanler and W. Karo, ‘Polymer syntheses, Vol.1’. 1974:New York. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.C. McWilliams, ‘Acrylamide and other Unsaturated Amides’, in ‘Functional Monomers’ (Ed. R.H. Yocum and E.B. Nyquist). 1973: New York. Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.S. Breslow, G.E. Hulse, and A.S. Matlack, J. Amer.chem.Soc., 1957, 79, 3760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.W. Lenz, ‘Organic Chemistry of Synthetic High Polymers’. 1967: New York, Interscience.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.S. Dainton, K.J. Ivin and J. Walmsley, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1960, 56, 1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Azzara and K. Singer, Polymer Bull. (Berlin) 1980, 2, 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.N. Bhadani and Y.K. Prasad, J.polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1977, 15, 721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.N. Bhadani and Y.K. Prasad, Makromolek.Chem., 1977, 178, 18a.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Yoshizawa, Z. Takehara, Z. Ogumi, and C. Nagai, J.applied Electrochem., 1976, 6, 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B.L. Funt and Li-Chen Hsu, Polymer, 1979, 20, 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B.C. Simionescu, M. Leanca, C. Ananiescu, and C. Simionescu, Polymer Bull.(Berlin), 1980, 3, 437 (CA., 94, lo3932g).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.A. Zharov, A.G. Kazakevich and N.S. Enikolopyan, Dokl.akad. Nauk SSSR., 1976, 230, 354 (CA, 86, 90306g).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Ogo, N. Nishiguchi and Y. Okuri, Bull.chem.Soc. (Japan), 1981, 54, 520 (CA, 94, 140254b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Kaneko and K. Sugiyama, Zairyo, 1977, 26, 678 (CA, 87, 118334m).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N.K. Baramboin and L.A. Antonova, Kolloid Zh.,1976, 38, 961 (CA, 85, 193206h).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Henglein, Makromolek.Chem., 1954, 14, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G.K. Oster, G. Oster, and G. Prati, J. amer.Chem.Soc., 1957, 79, 595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Chaberek, A. Shepp and R.J. Allen, J.phys.Chem., 1965, 69, 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.W. Chambers, E. Collinson, and F.S. Dainton, Trans.Faraday Soc, 1970, 66, 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P.G. Garratt, Polymer, 1962, 3, 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Magat, Polymer, 1962, 3, 449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C.S. Sheppard and V. Kamath, ‘Initiators’ in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 3rd. Ed. (Ed. M. Grayson et al.) 1981:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol.13, p.355.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. P. Riggs and F. Rodriguez, J.polymer Sci., 1967, 5, 3151; Polymer Preprints, 1965, 6, 207.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    U.C. Singh, S.P. Manickam, and K. Venkatrao, Makromolek. Chem., 1979, 180, 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Savasvathy and K. Venkatrao, Curr.Sci., 1980, 49, 702.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.N. Bhadani and Y.K. Prasad, J.polymer.Sci. Polymer Letters, 1977, 15, 305; 1978, 16, 639; Makromolek.Chem., 1980, 181, 1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    ‘Organic Peroxides’ (Ed. by D. Swern). 3 Vols. 1970–72:New York. Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    ‘Diacyl Peroxides’ Product Bulletin. Lucidol Division. Pennwalt Corporation. 1977:Buffalo, New York.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    ‘Dialkyl Peroxides’ Product Bulletin. Lucidol Division, Pennwalt Corporation. 1977:Buffalo, New York.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    ‘Tertiary Alkyl Hydroperoxides’. Product Bulletin. Lucidol Division. Pennwalt Corporation. 1977:Buffalo, New York.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ‘Peroxyesters’. Product Bulletin. Lucidol Division. Pennwalt Corporation. 1977:Buffalo, New York.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Zand, ‘Azo Catalysts’ in ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology’ (Ed. by N.M. Bikales) 1965:New York. Wiley-Interscience. Vol.2, p.278.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    ‘Vinyl Polymerization Catalyst (Azobisisobutyronitrile)’ Product Information Bulletin. E.I. du Pont de Nemours Inc., Wilmington, Del.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Baer, J. A. Caskey, and A. Fricke, Makromolek.Chem., 1972, 158, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Tanaka, I. Miyagawa and T. Nakato (to Wako Pure Chemical Industry Ltd.) Brit.Pat.Appl. 2,018,784 (1979) (CA, P92, 147510z).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    K.H. Markiewitz and A.J. Restaino (to I.C.I.(United States)Inc.) Ger.Offenl. 2, 715, 328 (1976) (CA, 88, 7698j).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    O. Nuyken and R. Kerber, Makromolek.Chem., 1978, 179, 2845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Sunamori and M. Nishii (to Mitsubishi Rayon Co.) Japan Pat. 77-32, 983 (CA, 87, 6676t).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. Bhaduri and S. Aditya, Makromolek.Chem., 1977, 178, 1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Kothandraman and P.G. Sundaram, Makromolek.Chem., 1977, 178, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    K.A. Abdul, Q. Anwaruddiv and L.V. Natarajam, Curr.Sci., 1978, 47, 452.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    P. Elayaperumal, T. Balakrishnan and M. Santappa, Curr.Sci., 1977, 46, 849; Makromolek.Chem., 1977, 178, 2271.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Gnanasundaram and H. Kothandaram, Eur.polymer.J., 1979, 15, 399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    N. Hiroshi, S. Yokiashi, and M. Seishi, Makromolek.Chem., 1971, 143, 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Poddubnyi, G.F. Storozh, and L.L. Topol’nitskaya, Visn.L’viv. Derzh.Univ., Ser.Khim., 1975, 17, 50 (CA, 86, 171915g).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    P. Gnanasundaram and H. Kothandaraman, Polymer.J.(Japan), 1979, 11, 261 (CA., 91, 5526q).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    F. Rodriguez and R.D. Givey, J. polymer Sci., 1961, 55, 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    L.A. Lavrova, N.P. Dymarchuk, and K.P. Mischenko, Zh.prikl. Khim.(Leningrad) 1973, 46, 1294 (CA, 79, 92656a).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. P. Riggs and F. Rodriguez, J.polymer.Sci., A-1, 1967, 5, 3167.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. W.L. Fordham and H.L. Williams, J. Amer.chem.Soc., 1951, 73, 4855; J. Orr and H.L. Williams, ibid.,1955, 77, 3715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. Das, I.K. Kar and S.R. Palit, J. Indian chem.Soc., 1974, 51, 393.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    W.G. Barb, J. H. Baxendale, P. George, and K.R. Hargreave, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1951, 47, 462, 591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M.M. Hussain and S.N. Misra, Indian J. Chem., 1979, A17, 118.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    S.N. Misra, M.M. Hussain, and R.D. Singh, Makromolek.Chem., 1978, 179, 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G.S. Misra and S.L. Dubey, Colloid Polymer Sci., 1979, 257, 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    G.S. Misra and N.M. Bhasilal, Eur.polymer.J., 1978, 14, 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M.M. Hussain and S.N. Misra, Makromolek.Chem., 1978, 177, 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M.M. Hussain, S.N. Misra and A. Gupta, Makromolek.Chem., 1976, 177, 2919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    I. Ooshima, S. Chiba, K. Ariyama and M. Ozaki (to Nitto Chemical Ind. Co. Ltd.) Japan Pat. 75-70, 489 (CA, P83, 164856y).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    E. Barthel (to Chemische Fabrik Stockhausen & Co.) Ger.Offenl. 2, 136, 384 (1973) (CA, P78, 125154v).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    N. Cobianu, G. Hubca and N. Covevoi (to Inst.Politecnic ‘Gheorghe Gheorghia Dej’), Roumanian Pat. 59,267 (1975) (CA, P88, 153253b).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D.Z. Chshmarityan and N.M. Beileryan, Arm.khim.Zh.,1977, 30, 120 (CA, 86, 190528z).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. S. Shukla and D.C. Misra, Makromolek.Chem., 1973, 173, 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G.S. Misra, J. S. Shukla and H. Narain, Makromolek.Chem., 1968, 119, 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    G.S. Misra and J. J. Rebello, Makromolek.Chem., 1975, 176, 2203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    G.S. Misra and J. J. Rebello, Makromolek.Chem., 1974, 175, 3117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    J. S. Shukla and D.C. Misra, J.polymer.Sci., Polymer Chem.Ed., 1973, 11, 751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    U.D.N. Bajpai and G.S. Misra, Vysokomol.Soedin., Ser.A, 1979, 21, 1720 (CA, 21, 158195f).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    G.S. Misra and U.D.N. Bajpai, J.macromol.Sci. — Chem., 1979, A13, 1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    G.S. Misra and S.N. Bhattacharya, J.macromol.Sci. — Chem., 1980, A14, 907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    S.P. Rout, A. Rout, N. Mallick, B.C. Singh, and M. Santappa, Makromolek.Chem., 1977, 178, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    H. Narita, T. Okimoto and S. Machida, J.polymer.Sci., A-1, 1970, 8, 2725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    G.S. Misra and G.P. Dubey, J.macromol.Sci., — Chem., 1981, A16, 601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    M.M. Hussain and A. Gupta, J.macromol.Sci., — Chem., 1977, A11, 2177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    G.S. Misra and G.P. Dubey, Polymer Bull.(Berlin), 1979, 1, 671.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    G.S. Misra and S.N. Bhattacharaya, Colloid Polymer Sci., 1980, 258, 954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R.K. Samal, P.L. Nayak and T.R. Mohanty, Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    P. Elayaperumal, T. Balakrishnan, M. Santappa, and R.W. Lenz, J.polymer Sci., Chem., 1979, 17, 4099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    D. Pramanick, J. Indian chem.Soc., 1978, 55, 572.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    G.S. Misra and S.L. Dubey, J.macromol.Sci.-Chem., 1979, A13, 31.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    J. S. Shukla and K. Singh, J.polymer Sci. — Chem., 1979, 17, 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S.S. Harihan and A. Meenakshi, J.polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1977, 15, 1.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    P.L. Nayak and S. Lenka, J.macromol.Sci., — Rev.macromol.Chem., 1980, C19, 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    C. Walling, ‘Free Radicals in Solution’. 1957:New York. Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    S.E. Morsi, A.B. Zaki, T.M. El-Shamy and A. Habib, Eur.polymer.J., 1976, 12, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    S.E. Morsi, A.B. Zaki, A. Habib, and M.A. El-Khyami, J.appl. polymer Sci., Appl.polymer Symp., 1979, 35, 573.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    G.S. Sur and S.K. Choi, J.macromol.Sci.-Chem., 1981, A15, 671.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. C. Bevington, ‘Radical Polymerization’, 1981:London. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D.C. Nonhebel and J. C. Walton, ‘Free Radical Chemistry’. 1974: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    W.A. Pryor, ‘Free Radicals in Solution’. 1957:New York. Wiley.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    I.M. Kolthoff and I.K. Miller, J. Amer.chem.Soc., 1951, 73, 3055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    C.K. Ong, PhD Thesis, 1980:Huddersfield Polytechnic/CNAA.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Catalyst 78. Societe Francaise d’organo-Synthese, 92200 Neuilly-sur-Seine; T.J. Dougherty, J. Amer.chem.Soc., 1961, 83, 4849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    T.J. Suen, Yun Jen and J. V. Lockwood, J.polymer Sci., 1958, 31, 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    V.F. Kurenkov and V.A. Myagchenkov, Eur.polymer.J.,1980, 16, 1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    D.J. Currie, F.S. Dainton, and W.S. Watt, Polymer, 1965, 6, 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    V.F. Gromov, N.I. Galperina, T.O. Osmanov, P.M. Khomikovskii and A.D. Abkin, Eur.polymer. J., 1980, 16, 529.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    G. Saini, G. Polla-Mattiot, and M. Meirone, J.polymer.Sci., B, 1961, 50, S13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    R.M. Joshi, J. polymer. Sci., 1962, 56, 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    K.G. McCurdy and K.J. Laidler, Canadian J.chem.,1963, 41, 1867; 1964, 42, 818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    A.G. Evans and E. Tyrrell, J.polymer.Sci., 1947, 2, 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    G. Saini, A. Leoni, and S. Franco, Makromolek. Chem., (a)1971, 144, 235; (b) 1971, 146, 165; (c) 1971, 147, 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    D.R. Burfield and S.C. Ng, Eur.polymer.J.1976, 12, 873.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. Chapiro and L. Perec, Eur.polymer J.,1971, 7, 1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    A. Chapiro and L. Perec-Spritzer, Eur.polymer J., 1975, 11, 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    U.D.N. Bajpai, J.macromol.Sci. — Chem., 1981, A16, 629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    V.F. Gromov, A.V. Matveeva, P.M. Khomikovskii and A.D. Abkin, Vysokomol.Soedin., 1967, A-9, 1444. (CA, 68, 30202p).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    T.A. Fadner and H. Morawetz, J.polymer Sci., 1960, 45, 475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    R.M. Akopyam and N.M. Beileryan, Arm.khim.Zh., 1979, 32, 343. (CA, 91, 175788u).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    A.M. Chatterjee and C.M. Burns, Canadian J. Chem., 1971, 49, 3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    V.F. Gromov, T.O. Osmanov, P.M. Khomikovskii and A.D. Abkin, Eur. polymer J., 1980, 16, 803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    C.J. Mast and W.R. Cabanese, J.polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1973, 11, 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    W.R. Cabanese and M.C. Wang, J.polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1975, 13, 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    F.S. Dainton and M. Tordoff, Trans.Faraday Soc., 1957, 53, 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    T.J. Suen and D.F. Rossler, J.appl.polymer Sci., 1960, 3, 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    E. Collinson, F.S. Dainton and G.S. McNaughtan, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1957, 53, 476, 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    E.A.S. Cavell and I.T. Gilson, J.polymer Sci., A-1, 1966, 4, 541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    P.M. Robinson, M.W.C. Coville and R.W. Dexter (to American Cyanamid Co.) U.S.Pat. 4, 145,495 (1979) (CA, P91, 5698x).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    A.A. Berlin, S.A. Volfson and N.S. Enokolopian, Adv. in Polymer Science. 1981: Berlin. Springer-Verlag. Vol.38, p.96.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    E.S. Garina, A.V. Olenin, V.P. Zubov and S.I. Kuchanov, J.polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed., 1978, 16, 2199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    M. Lee, T. Moriguchi, and Y. Minoura, J.chem.Soc.(Faraday i), 1978, 74, 1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    F.S. Dainton and W.D. Sisley, Trans.Faraday Soc., 1963, 59, 1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    A.M. North and A.A. Scallan, Polymer, 1964, 5, 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    E.A.S. Cavell and I.T. Gilson, Makromolek.Chem., 1968, 119, 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    E.A.S. Cavell and I.T. Gilson, J.polymer Sci., A-1, 1969, 7, 1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    K. Yokota and J. Oda, Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi, 1970, 73, 224. (CA, 72, 122003k).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    T.A. Sokolova and G.M. Chetyrkina, Vysokomol.Soedin., 1961, 3, 244 (CA, 55, 27957h).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    F.S. Dainton and W.D. Sisley, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1963, 59, 1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    J. F. Bork, D.P. Wyman and L.E. Coleman, J.appl.polymer Sci., 1963, 7, 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    S. Franco and A. Leoni, Polymer, 1973, 14, 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    I. Iwakura, F. Toda and H. Suzuki, J.polymer Sci., A-1, 1967, 5, 1599.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    A.J. Frisque and R. Bernot (to Nalco Chemical Co.) U.S.Pat. 3,644,305 (1972) (CA, P76, 154733x).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    B. Kast, J. Stedefeder, A. Sanner, H.U. Schenck and R. Thoma (to B.A.S.F.), Ger.Offenl. 2,636,243 (1978) (CA, P88, 137394t).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    J. P. Communal, J. Fritz and B. Papillon (to Rhone-Progel), Ger. Offenl. 2, 248, 715 (1973) (CA, P79, 54048w).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    M. Domonie, C. Oprescu, V. Dinomie, G. Hubca, C. Hagiopol and M. Munteanu (to Intreprinderea Chimica Risnov), Roumanian Pat. 67,005 (1978) (CA, P93, 95901b).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    J. Beres, J. Olkowska, M. Zawadzki, Z. Maciejewski, W. Pyplawiec and W. Powierza (Inst.Cieskiej Syntezy Organicznej ‘Blanchownia’) Polish Pat. 102, 482 (1979) (CA, P91, 141442m).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    K. Takada, T. Fusaka and M. Suzuki (to Sanyo Chemical Ind.), Japan P. 79-155, 296 (1979) (CA, P92, 147493c).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    A.C. Perricone and J. M. Lucas (to Milchem Inc.) Ger.Offenl. 3,008,660 (1981) (CA, 94, 157535s).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    J. Neel and J. Boutin (Rhone-Poulenc In.S.A.) Eur.Pat.Appl. 17555 (1981) (CA, P94, 31300t).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    S. Inoe, M. Hoseki and Y. Komatsu (Sanyo Chemical Industry Ltd.), Japan Pat. 79-141,381 (1979). (CA, P92, 164533b).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    T. Ishibashi and T. Miyajima (Kyoritsu Organic Industrial) Japan Pat. 76-143,094 (1975) (CA, P86, 90912b).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    J. Hughes (American Colloid Co.) U.S.Pat. 4,032,701 (1977) (CA, P87, 69131g).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    A. Tago, H. Kudomi and S. Sato (to Mitsubishi Chemical Industry Ltd.) Japan Pat. 78-23, 387 (1978) (CA, P89, 25323h).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    A. Tago, H. Kudomi and S. Sato (to Mitsubishi Chemical Industry Ltd.) Japan Pat. 78-41, 386 (1978) (CA, P89, 60500k).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    P.A. Glubish (Sci.Res. Institute for Processing of Artificial and Synthetic Fibres) USSR Pat 531,827 (1976) (CA, P86, 17301x).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Y. Ito, T. Nakagawa, Y. Torri, A. Nitta, M. Furakawa and H. Ito (to Mitsui Toatsu Chem. Inc.) Japan Pat. 80-34,269 (CA, P93, 27267z).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    F. Nan, H.L.G. Schlosser, R.M. Nicoara, S. Serban, A.A. Szalkai, and O. Manu, Roumanian Pat. 68,483 (1980) (CA, 94, 140438q).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    L.K. Voronova, N.S. Shaglaeve, A.V. Rzhepka and V.A. Lopryen, Zh.prikl.Khim. (Leningrad) 1980, 53, 465 (CA, 92, 181771v).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    H. Penneweiss, J. Jacob and J. Masenek (to Roehm GmbH) Ger. Offenl. 2,842,935 (1980) (CA, P93, 72617z).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    C.J. Phalangas (Hercules Inc.) U.S.Pat. 3,948,740 (1976) (CA, p85, 33680e).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    H. Ikeda and M. Uono (Kyoritsu Yuki Co. Ltd.), Japan Pat. 78-23, 382 (1978) (CA, P89, 75654n).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    A. Nitta, Y. Ito, H. Ito, M. Noto and H. Kamio (to Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals Inc.), Japan.Pat. 79-127,488 (1979) (CA, P92, 59427z).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    J. Boutin, G. Bernard and J. Bruno (to Rhone-Poulenc S.A.) Eur.Pat.Appl. 8,246 (1980) (CA, P93, 47453k).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    B. Keggenhoff, E. Bandtel and H.J. Rosencrantz (to Bayer A.G.) Ger.Offenl. 2,930,160 (1981) (CA, P94, 140642b).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. Flesher and I.M. Johnson (Allied Colloids Ltd.), Eur.Pat. Appl. 5,924 (1979) (CA, P92, 199073d).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    O. Kamata, K. Watanabe, S. Sawajama and K. Mori (to Mitsubishi Chemical Industries Ltd.,), Japan Pat.80-07, 826 (1980) (CA, P93, 8789e).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    K. Kojima, Japan Pat. 77-66, 591 (1977) (CA, P87, 85782a).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mitsubishi Chemical Industries Ltd., Japan Pat. 80-102,611 (1980) (CA, P93, 205339.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    R. Hoene, D. Jung, H.U. Schenke and H. Spoor (to B.A.S.F. A.G.) Ger.Offenl. 2, 710, 372 (1978) (CA, P89, 198515a).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    J. W. Nemec and W. Bauer, ‘Acrylic acid’, in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 3rd.Ed. (Ed. M. Grayson et al.). 1978: New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol.1, p.330.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    ‘Acrylic and Methacrylic Monomers. Typical Properties and Specifications’. Bulletin CM-16. Rohm & Haas Inc. 1972.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    ’storage and Handling of Acrylic and Methacrylic Esters and Acids’. Bulletin CM-17. Rohn & Haas Inc. 1975.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. Katchalsky and G. Blauer, Trans.Faraday Soc., 1951, 47, 1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    S.H. Pinner, J.polymer Sci., 1952, B-9, 282.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    G. Blauer, J.polymer Sci., 1953, 11, 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    V.A. Kabanov, D.A. Topchiev, and T.M. Karaputadze, J.polymer.Sci., Part C, 1973, 42, 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    J. Th.Overbeek, Bull.Soc.chim.Belge, 1948, 57, 252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    A. Katchalsky, N. Shavit and H. Eisenberg, J.polymer Sci., 1954, 13, 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    M. Mandel, Eur.polymer J., 1970, 6, 807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Harned and Owen, ‘The Physical Chemistry of Electrolytic Solutions’. 1950:New York. Reinhold. 2nd.Ed.pp.66,113.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. Mandel, University of Leiden. Private Communication.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    W.R. Cabaness, T. Yen-Chin Lin and C. Parkanyani, J.polymer Sci., A-1, 1971, 9, 2155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    S. Ponratnam and S.L. Kapur, Makromolek.chem. 1977, 178, 1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    S. Ponratnam and S.L. Kapur, J.polymer.Sci., Polymer chem.Ed., 1976, 14, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    S. Ponratnam, S.P. Rao, S.G. Joshi, and S.L. Kapur, J.macromol. Sci. — Chem.Ed., 1976, A-10, 1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    N.I. Gal’perina, T.A. Guganava, V.F. Gromov, P.M. Khomikovskii, and A.D. Abkin, Vysokomol.Soedin., Ser.A., 1975, 17, 1670 (CA, 83, 164674n; Vysokomol.Soedin., Ser.B, 1976, 18, 384 (CA, 85, 63409r).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    A. Chapiro, Eur.polymer.J. 1973, 9, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    A. Chapiro and J. Dulieu, Eur.polymer.J., 1977, 13, 563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    R. Kerber, Makromolek.Chem., 1966, 96, 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    ‘Vinyl Pyrrolidone (V-Pyrol)’. Technical Bulletin 7543-037. General Aniline and Film Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    A.S. Wood, ‘Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone’, Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ (Ed. H.F. Mark et al.). 1971:New York Interscience. Vol.21, p.427.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    J. C. Bevington and R. Thomas, Polymer, 1975, 16, 938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    E. Senogles and R. Thomas, J.polymer Sci., C, 1975, 49, 203.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    N.M. Bikales, ‘Vinyl Ether Polymers’. ‘Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology’ (Ed.H.F. Mark et al.) 1971:New York. Interscience. Vol. 14, p. 511.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    C.E. Schildknecht, ‘Vinyl Ether Monomers and Polymers’ in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 2nd.Ed. (Ed. by H.F. Mark et al.) 1970:New York. Interscience. Vol.21, p.412.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    J. Furakawa and T. Saegusa, ‘Ethylene Oxide Polymerization’. 1963:New York. Interscience.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    J. N. Cawse, J. P. Henry, M.W. Swartzlander and P.H. Wadia, ‘Ethylene Oxide’ in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’ 3rd.Ed. (Ed.M. Grayson et al.).1980:New York. John Wiley & Sons Vol.9, p.432.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    O.C. Dermer and G.E. Ham, ‘Ethylene imine and other Aziridines’ 1969:New York. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    ‘Ethyleneimine’ Dow Chemical Co. 1965.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    G.E. Ham, ‘Ethyleneimine’ in Kirk-Othmer ‘Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology’, 3rd. Ed. (Ed by M. Grayson et al.) 1981:New York. John Wiley & Sons. Vol.13, p.142.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. M. Thomson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical SciencesThe PolytechnicHuddersfield, West YorkshireUK

Personalised recommendations