Aqueous Solutions of Polyelectrolytes

  • M. Mandel

Abstract

Polyelectrolytes are macromolecules which, in a suitable polar solvent, usually water, carry a large number of ionized or ionizable groups, often one per monomer unit. Under well defined conditions the macromolecules will bear a considerable charge distributed along the chain (the ‘fixed charges’) accompanied by an equivalent number of small ions of opposite sign (the ‘counterions’) in solution. The charge-bearing groups may all be identical or not, but we shall here treat only homopolyelectolytes, or polyelectrolytes behaving as such. Polyelectrolytes can be of natural origin (nucleic acids, many polysaccharides, etc.) or synthetically prepared (e.g. polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl pyridinium bromide, poly(maleic acid-vinylethylether)-copolymer, etc.).

Keywords

Persistence Length Macromolecular Chain Polyacrylic Acid Helmholtz Energy Exclude Volume Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    The following books review the physical chemical properties of polyelectrolyte solutions and their theoretical treatment: a. C. Tanford, ‘Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules’. 1961: New York, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  2. b.
    S.A. Rice and M. Nagasawa, ‘Polyelectrolyte Solutions’, 1961: London, New York. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. c.
    F. Osawa, ‘Polyelectrolytes’, 1970: New York, Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  4. d.
    E. Selegny, M. Mandel and U.P. Strauss (Eds.), ‘Polyelectrolytes’, 1974:Dordrecht, Boston. D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  5. e.
    H. Eisenberg, ‘Biological Macromolecules and Polyelectrolytes’, 1976: Oxford. Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    T. Kitano, A. Taguchi and M. Nagasawa, Macromolecules, 1980, 13, 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.
    I. Noda, T. Tsuge and M. Nagasawa, J.phys.Chem., 1970, 74, 710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 4.
    C. Wolff, J. de Physique (Paris), 1978, 39, C2-169.Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    Y.M. Joshi and J. C.T. Kwak, J.phys.Chem., 1979, 83, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 6.
    A. Katchalsky, Pure and Appl.Chem., 1971, 26, 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 7.
    J. Th.G. Overbeek, Bull.soc.chim.Belg., 1948, 57, 252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 8.
    A. Katchalsky and P. Spitnik, J.polym.Sci., 1947, 2, 432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 9.
    M. Mandel, Europ.polym.J., 1970, 6, 807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 10.
    J. C. Leyte and M. Mandel, J.polym.Sci., 1964, A-2, 1879.Google Scholar
  15. 11.a.
    T. Alfrey, P.W. Berg and H. Morawetz, J.polym.Sci., 1951, 7, 543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. b.
    S. Lifson and A. Katchalsky, J.polym.Sci., 1953, 13, 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 12.
    M. Fixman, J.chem.Phys., 1979, 70, 4995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 13.a.
    G.S. Manning, J.chem.Phys.,1969, 51, 924,934,3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. b.
    G.S. Manning, in Ref.ld, p.9.Google Scholar
  20. c.
    G.S. Manning, Ann.rev.phys.Chem.,1972, 23, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 14.
    J. Skolnick and M. Fixman, Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 15.a.
    T. Odijk, J.polym.Sci.(Polym.Phys.Ed.), 1977, 15, 477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. b.
    T. Odijk, Polymer, 1978, 19, 989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 16.
    T. Odijk and M. Mandel, Physica, 1978, 93A, 298.Google Scholar
  25. 17.
    T. Odijk and A.C. Houwart, J.polym.Sci. (Polym.Phys.Ed.), 1978, 16, 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 18.
    M. Mandel and J. Schouten, Macromolecules, 1980, 13, 1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 19.
    T. Odijk, Biopolymers, 1979, 18, 3111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 20.
    P.G.de Germes, P. Pincus, R.M. Velasco and F. Brochard, J.de Physique(Paris), 1976, 37, 1461.Google Scholar
  29. 21.
    T. Odijk, Macromolcules, 1979, 12, 688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 22.
    R.S. Koene, H.W.J. Smit and M. Mandel, Chem.Phys.Letters, 1980, 74, 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Mandel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical Chemistry Gorlaeus LaboratoriesUniversity of LeidenLeidenNetherlands

Personalised recommendations