Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer

  • James R. Fudge
  • Karl V. Miller
  • R. Larry Marchinton
  • Delwood C. Collins
  • Thomas R. Tice


Male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibit signpost marking behavior during both the sexually active and quiescent periods (Marchinton et al. 1990, Ozoga 1989). During the breeding season, the primary signposts are rubs and scrapes. Rubs consist of small trees on which the buck rubs his antlers and forehead (Moore and Marchinton 1974). Atkeson and Marchinton (1982) identified seasonally active tubular apocrine sudoriferous glands in the forehead tissue of both male and female whitetails. Moore and Marchinton (1974) hypothesized that rubs could serve to delineate dominance areas within a buck’s home range, even though such areas are not actively defended against subordinate males.


Breeding Season Testosterone Level Alpha Male Subordinate Male Hierarchical Position 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Fudge
    • 1
  • Karl V. Miller
    • 1
  • R. Larry Marchinton
    • 1
  • Delwood C. Collins
    • 2
  • Thomas R. Tice
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Forest ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Veterans’ Administration Medical Center and University of Kentucky Medical CenterLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Southern Research InstituteBirminghamUSA

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