Gas Chromatographic Analysis and Estrous Diagnostic Potential of Headspace Sampling Above Bovine Body Fluids

  • G. F. Rivard
  • W. R. Klemm


The complete expression of bull sexual behavior depends on cues from both volatile and non-volatile portions of biological fluid samples from a cow in estrus (Rivard and Klemm, 1990). By displaying those behaviors, bulls demonstrate their ability to perceive specific volatile signals (Klemm et al., 1987). Our investigations in cycling cattle have shown that the female releases a pheromone two to three days prior to estrus. As determined by bull behavioral assay, blood contains this pheromone. Glands releasing this pheromone are located at the mucocutaneous junction of the vulva, from which a clear secretion can be expelled by gentle squeezing of the glands (Rivard and Klemm, 1989). We now postulate that there are estrous-specific volatile compounds above bovine body fluids such as blood, vulval skin gland secretion (VSG), and follicular fluid (FF) that correlate with progesterone/estrogen blood levels just prior to estrus.


Estrous Cycle Follicular Fluid Serum Vial Peak Weight Mucocutaneous Junction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. Rivard
    • 1
  • W. R. Klemm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public HealthTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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