An Investigation into the ‘Bruce Effect’ in Domesticated Rabbits

  • Diana Bell
  • Cindy Reece


Exposing a newly mated female to a ‘strange’ male (i.e. a male other than the original stud) has been found to block pregnancy in several rodent species. First reported in a spontaneously ovulating species, the mouse Mus musculus (Bruce, 1959), this so-called ‘Bruce effect’ has since been demonstrated in induced ovulators such as the field vole Microtus agrestis, meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, and praire vole Microtus ochrogaster (Clulow & Clarke, 1968; Milligan, 1976; Clulow and Langford, 1971; Stehn & Richmond, 1975).


Prairie Vole Meadow Vole Domesticate Rabbit Microtus Ochrogaster Strange Male 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Bell
    • 1
  • Cindy Reece
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichEngland

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