Activation of Urinary Bladder Carcinogens within the Target Organ

  • Luisa Airoldi
  • Marina Bonfanti
  • Cinzia Magagnotti
  • Roberto Fanelli


The majority of human cancers in the most commonly involved organs are induced by environmental factors. Of the known exogenous carcinogenic agents, chemicals play an important role in tumor induction. Humans are exposed to chemical carcinogens through diet, tobacco, occupational and environmental settings. The list of chemicals known to be carcinogenic to man includes a broad range of structures such as aromatic amines, alkylating agents, vinyl chloride. Also, highly suspected of having carcinogenic activity in humans are af latoxin B1, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitroso compounds. In many cases, epidemiological evidence has proved sufficient to identify certain chemicals or chemical mixtures as carcinogens.


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Urinary Bladder Bladder Epithelial Cell Bladder Carcinogen Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luisa Airoldi
    • 1
  • Marina Bonfanti
    • 1
  • Cinzia Magagnotti
    • 1
  • Roberto Fanelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental Pharmacology and ToxicologyIstituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario NegriMilanItaly

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