Construction and Representation of Visual Space in the Inferior Parietal Lobule

  • Ralph M. Siegel
  • Heather L. Read
Part of the Cerebral Cortex book series (CECO, volume 12)

Abstract

In human subjects, neurological case histories have provided details of striking deficits of cognitive functions. These findings have been supplemented by comparative studies in nonhuman primates that permit invasive manipulations and measurements of brain tissue, as well as theories that provide a structure for the synthesis and distillation of such clinical and experimental results into general principles. The formation of visuospatial representations of the surrounding world has proven to be particularly amenable to this multifaceted approach. Although far from being completely understood, substantial progress has been made in the past 20 years in the analysis of this cognitive process. One patient, suffering from profound hemi-inattention has:

lost her idea of ‘left,’ both with regard to the world and her own body. Sometimes (when eating) she complains that her portions are too small, but this is because she eats only from the right half of the plate—it does not occur to her that it has a left half as well. Sometimes, she will put on lipstick, and make tip the right half of her face, leaving the left half completely neglected: It is almost impossible to treat these things, because her attention cannot be drawn to them, and she has no conception that they are wrong. She knows it intellectually, and can understand, and laugh; but it is impossible for her to know it directly. (Sacks, 1985)

This particular type of spatial and attentional deficit arises from damage to associational cortical regions which were initially defined on the basis of late myelination during development (Flechsig, 1876). This patient does not have a hemianopia (half-vision field blindness), for her vision is normal. But her cognitive disassociations are in a sense more profound than blunt dissections of primary sensory or motor function. Removal of primary sensory or motor cortex leads to devastating blindness, deafness, or paralysis. But such loss can be overcome, at least in the sensory modality, by reliance on spared sensory capabilities. However, damage to the association cortex strikes at the very core of being. The patient can see but cannot attend to half of her visual world. She cannot intellectually compensate, because her spatial intellect itself is damaged. The challenge to neuroscience is to generate mechanistic explanations, perhaps reductionist, perhaps synthetic, to account for normal cognitive deficits on this scale. These explanations might explain cognitive function in the normal individual.

Keywords

Receptive Field Optic Flow Visual Space Inferior Parietal Lobule Posterior Parietal Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph M. Siegel
    • 1
  • Heather L. Read
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Molecular and Behavioral NeuroscienceRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

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