The Prefrontal Cortex and Temporal Integration

  • Joaquin M. Fuster
Part of the Cerebral Cortex book series (CECO, volume 4)


The associative cortex of the frontal lobe, commonly termed the prefrontal cortex, undergoes considerable expansion in the course of evolution. It reaches its greatest development in the human brain, constituting nearly one-third of the neocortex. Its phylogenetic expansion outstrips that of other cortical regions and also that of the mediodorsal (MD) nucleus of the thalamus, a nucleus so heavily and distinctly projecting to the prefrontal cortex that the latter is conventionally defined as the cortical territory of MD projection.


Prefrontal Cortex Temporal Integration Contingent Negative Variation Temporal Organization Delay Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akert, K., 1964, Comparative anatomy of frontal cortex and thalamo-frontal connections, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 372–396.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, G. E., and Fuster, J. M., 1973, Effects of cooling prefrontal cortex on cell firing in the nucleus medialis dorsalis, Brain Res. 61:93–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbizet, J., 1970, Human Memory and Its Pathology, Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  4. Barbizet, J., Diuzabo, P., and Flavigny, R., 1975, Role des lobes frontaux dans le langage, Rev. Neurol. 131:525–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Batuev, A. S., Pirogov, A. A., and Orlov, A.A., 1979, Unit activity of the prefrontal cortex during delayed alternation performance in monkey, Acta Physiol. Hung. 53:345–353.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, R. H., and Fuster, J. M., 1976, Delayed-matching and delayed-response deficit from cooling dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys, J. Comp. Physiol Psychol. 90:293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benevento, L. A., and Fallon, J. H., 1975, The projection of occipital cortex to orbital cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), Exp. Neurol. 46:402–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benevento, L. A., Fallon, J., Davis, B. J., and Rezak, M., 1977, Auditory-visual interaction in single cells in the cortex of the superior temporal sulcus and the orbital frontal cortex of the macaque monkey, Exp. Neurol. 57:849–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bignall, K. E., and Imbert, M., 1969, Polysensory and cortico-cortical projections to frontal lobe of squirrel and rhesus monkey, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 26:206–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blake, M., Meyer, D. R., and Meyer, P. M., 1966, Enforced observation in delayed response learning by frontal monkeys, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 61:374–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Borda, R. P., 1970, The effect of altered drive states on the contingent negative variation (CNV) in rhesus monkeys, Electroencepalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol 29:173–180.Google Scholar
  12. Brickner, R., 1934, An interpretation of frontal lobe function based upon the study of a case of partial bilateral frontal lobectomy, Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 13:259–351.Google Scholar
  13. Brody, B. A., and Pribram, K. H., 1978, The role of frontal and parietal cortex in cognitive processing: Tests of spatial and sequence functions, Brain 101:607–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brutkowski, S., 1964, Prefrontal cortex and drive inhibition, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 242–270.Google Scholar
  15. Butter, C. M., 1969, Preservation in extinction and in discrimination reversal tasks following selective frontal ablations in Macaca mulatta, Physiol Behav. 4:163–171.Google Scholar
  16. Chavis, D. A., and Pandya, D. N., 1976, Further observations on corticofrontal connections in the rhesus monkey, Brain. Res. 117:369–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chomsky, N., 1975, Reflections on Language, Pantheon Books, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Chorover, S., and Cole, M., 1966, Delayed alternation performance in patients with cerebral lesions, Neuropsychologia 4:1–7.Google Scholar
  19. DeVito, J. L., and Smith, O. A., 1964, Subcortical projections of the prefrontal lobe of the monkey, J. Comp. Neurol. 123:413–424.Google Scholar
  20. Divac, I., 1972, Neostriatum and functions of prefrontal cortex, Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 32:461–477.Google Scholar
  21. Drewe, E. A., 1974, The effect of type and area of brain lesion on Wisconsin card sorting test performance, Cortex 10:159–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Drewe, E. A., 1975a, An experimental investigation of Luria’s theory on the effects of frontal lobe lesions in man, Neuropsychologia 13:421–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Drewe, E. A., 1975b, Go-no go learning after frontal lobe lesions in humans, Cortex 11:8–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Finan, J. L., 1942, Delayed response with predelay reinforcement in monkeys after removal of the frontal lobes, Am. J. Psychol. 55:202–214.Google Scholar
  25. Fuster, J. M., 1973, Unit activity in prefrontal cortex during delayed-response performance: Neuronal correlates of transient memory, J Neurophysiol. 36:61–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuster, J. M., 1975, Cryogenic and microelectrode studies of the prefrontal cortex, in: Symp. 5th Congr. Int. Primatol. Soc. (S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura, eds.), Japan Science Press, Tokyo, pp. 445–458.Google Scholar
  27. Fuster, J. M., 1980, The Prefrontal Cortex, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Fuster, J. M., 1981, Prefrontal cortex in motor control, in: Handbook of Physiology, Volume II (V. B. Brooks, ed.), American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C., pp. 1149–1178.Google Scholar
  29. Fuster, J. M., and Alexander, G. E., 1971, Neuron activity related to short-term memory, Science 173:652–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fuster, J. M., and Alexander, G. E., 1973, Firing changes in cells of the nucleus medialis dorsalis associated with delayed response behavior, Brain Res. 61:79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuster, J. M., and Bauer, R. H., 1974, Visual short-term memory deficit from hypothermia of frontal cortex, Brain Res. 81:393–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fuster, J. M., and Jervey, J. P., 1982, Neuronal firing in the inferotemporal cortex of the monkey in a visual memory task, J. Neurosci. 2:361–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fuster, J. M., Bauer, R. H., and Jervey, J. P., 1982a, Cellular discharge in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the monkey in cognitive tasks Exp. Neurol. 77:679–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuster, J. M., Jervey, J. P., and Bauer, R. H., 1982b, Indications of functional relationship between prefrontal and inferotemporal cortex, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 8:681.Google Scholar
  35. Fuster, J. M., Bauer, R. H., and Jervey, J. P., 1985, Functional interactions between inferotemporal and prefrontal cortex in a cognitive task, Brain Res. 330:299–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Geschwind, N., 1970, The organization of language and the brain, Science 170:940–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghent, L., Mishkin, M., and Teuber, H. L., 1962, Short-term memory after frontal lobe injury in man, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 55:705–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Glickstein, M., Quickley, D. E., and Glassman, H. N., 1964, Effect of frontal and parietal lesions on timing behavior in monkeys, Psychon. Sci. 1:265–266.Google Scholar
  39. Goldman, P. S., Rosvold, H. E., Vest, B., and Galkin, T. W., 1971, Analysis of the delayed-alternation deficit produced by dorsolateral prefrontal lesions in the rhesus monkey, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 77:212–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldman-Rakic, P. S., and Schwartz, M. L., 1982, Interdigitation of contralateral and ipsilateral columnar projections to frontal association cortex in primates, Science 216:755–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldstein, K., 1948, Language and Language Disturbances, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Hecaen, H., 1964, Mental symptoms associated with tumors of the frontal lobe, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 335–352.Google Scholar
  43. Hess, W. R., 1943, Teleokinetisches und ereismatisches Kraeftesystem in der Biomotorik, Helv. Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta 1:c62–c63.Google Scholar
  44. Ingvar, D. H., and Philipson, L., 1977, Distribution of cerebral blood flow in the dominant hemisphere during motor ideation and motor performance, Ann. Neurol. 2:230–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ingvar, D. H., and Schwartz, M. S., 1974, Blood flow patterns induced in the dominant hemisphere by speech and reading, Brain 97:273–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Isseroff, A., Rosvold, H. E., Galkin, T. W., and Goldman-Rakic, P. S., 1982, Spatial impairments following lesions of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in rhesus monkeys, Brain Res. 232:97–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Iversen, S. D., and Mishkin, M., 1973, Comparison of superior temporal and inferior prefrontal lesions on auditory and non-auditory tasks in rhesus monkeys, Brain Res. 55:355–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jackson, J. H., 1915, On affections of speech from disease of the brain, Brain 38:107–174.Google Scholar
  49. Jacobsen, C. F., 1935, Functions of the frontal association area in primates, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 33:558–569.Google Scholar
  50. Jacobsen, C. F., 1936, Studies of cerebral function in primates. I. The functions of the frontal association areas in monkeys, Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 13:3–60.Google Scholar
  51. Jacobsen, C. F., Wolfe, J. B., and Jackson, T. A., 1935, An experimental analysis of the functions of the frontal association areas in primates, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 82:1–14.Google Scholar
  52. Jacobson, S., and Trojanowski, J. Q., 1975, Amygdaloid projections to prefrontal granular cortex in rhesus monkey demonstrated with horseradish peroxidase, Brain Res. 100:132–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacobson, S., and Trojanowski, J. Q., 1977, Prefrontal granular cortex of the rhesus monkey. I. Intrahemispheric cortical afferents, Brain Res. 132:209–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jaervilehto, T., and Fruhstorfer, H., 1970, Differentiation between slow cortical potentials associated with motor and mental acts in man, Exp. Brain Res. 11:309–317.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, E. G., 1969, Interrelationships of parieto-temporal and frontal cortex in the rhesus monkey, Brain Res. 13:412–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, E. G., and Powell, T. P. S., 1970, An anatomical study of converging sensory pathways within the cerebral cortex of the monkey, Brain 93:793–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones-Gotman, M., and Milner, B., 1977, Design fluency: The invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions, Neuropsychologia 15:653–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Karmos, G., and Grastyan, E., 1962, Influence of hippocampal lesions on simple and delayed conditional reflexes, Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 21:215–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kemp, J. M., and Powell, T. P. S., 1970, The cortico-striate projection in the monkey, Brain 93:525–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kievit, J., and Kuypers, H. G. J. M., 1975, Basal forebrain and hypothalamic connections to frontal and parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey, Science 187:660–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kievit, J., and Kuypers, H. G. J. M., 1977, Organization of the thalamo-cortical connections to frontal and parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey, Science 187:660–662.Google Scholar
  62. Kojima, S., and Goldman-Rakic, P. S., 1982, Delayed-related activity of prefrontal neurons in rhesus monkeys performing delayed response, Brain Res. 248:43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kojima, S., Matsumura, M., and Kubota, K., 1981, Prefrontal neuron activity during delayed-response performance without imperative GO signals in the monkey, Exp. Neurol. 74:396–407.Google Scholar
  64. Kubota, K., and Niki, H., 1971, Prefrontal cortical unit activity and delayed alternation performance in monkeys, J. Neurophysiol. 34:337–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kubota, K., Iwamoto, T., and Suzuki, H., 1974, Visuokinetic activities of primate prefrontal neurons during delayed-response performance, J. Neurophysiol. 37:1197–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kubota, K., Tonoike, M., and Mikami, A., 1980, Neuronal activity in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a discrimination task with delay, Brain Res. 183:29–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Künzle, H., Akert, K., and Wurtz, R. H., 1976, Projections of area 8 (frontal eye field) to superior colliculus in the monkey: An autoradiographic study, Brain Res. 117:487–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuypers, H. G. J. M., Szwarcbart, M. K., Mishkin, M., and Rosvold, H. E., 1965, Occipitotemporal corticocortical connections in the rhesus monkey, Exp. Nenrol. 11:245–262.Google Scholar
  69. Larsen, B., Skinhoj, E., and Lassen, N. A., 1978, Variation in regional cortical blood flow in the right and left hemispheres during automatic speech, Brain 101:193–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lashley, K. S., 1951, The problem of serial order in behavior, in: Cerebral Mechanisms in behavior (L. A. Jeffress, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 112–146.Google Scholar
  71. Lassen, N. A., and Larsen, B., 1980, Cortical activity in the left and right hemispheres during language-related brain functions, Phonetica 37:27–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lawicka, W., 1972, Proreal syndrome in dogs, Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 32:261–276.Google Scholar
  73. Leichnetz, G. R., and Astruc, J., 1977, The course of some prefrontal corticofugals to the pallidum, substantia innominata, and amygdaloid complex in monkeys, Exp. Neurol. 54:104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Leichnetz, G. R., Spencer, R. F., Hardy, S. G. P., and Astruc, J., 1981, The prefrontal corticotectal projection in the monkey: An anterograde and retrograde horseradish peroxidase study, Neuroscience 6:1023–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lewinsohn, P., Zieler, R., Libet, J., Eyeberg, S., and Nielson, G., 1972, Short-term memory—a comparison between frontal and nonfrontal right-and left-hemisphere brain-damaged patients, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 81:248–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lhermitte, F., Deroulsne, J., and Signoret, J. L., 1972, Analyse neuropsychologique du syndrome frontal, Rev. Neurol. 127:415–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Luria, A. R., 1966, Higher Cortical Functiom in Man, Tavistock Publications, London.Google Scholar
  78. Luria, A. R., 1970, Traumatic Aphasia, Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  79. Luttenberg, J., 1974, Heterotopic contralateral projection of neocortical spheres of the cat brain. I. Frontal cortex, Acta Univ. Carol. Med. 20:251–276.Google Scholar
  80. Manning, F. J., 1973, Performance under temporal schedules by monkeys with partial ablations of prefrontal cortex, Physiol. Behav. 11:563–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mazziotta, J. C., Phelps, M. E., Carson, R. E., and Kuhl, D. E., 1982, Tomographic mapping of human cerebral metabolism: Auditory stimulation, Neurology 32:921–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mesulam, M.-M., Van Hoesen, G. W., Pandya, D. N., and Geschwind, N., 1977, Limbic and sensory connections of the inferior parietal lobule (area PG) in the rhesus monkey: A study with a new method for HRP histochemistry, Brain Res. 136:393–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Milner, B., 1963, Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting, Arch. Neurol. 9:90–100.Google Scholar
  84. Milner, B., 1964, Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 313–334.Google Scholar
  85. Milner, B., 1971, Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man, Br. Med. Bull. 27:272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mishkin, M., 1964, Perservation of central sets after frontal lesions in monkeys, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 219–241.Google Scholar
  87. Mishkin, M., and Bachevalier, J., 1983, Object recognition impaired by ventromedial but not dorsolateral prefrontal cortical lesions in monkeys, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 9:29.Google Scholar
  88. Mishkin, M., and Manning, F. J., 1978, Nonspatial memory after selective prefrontal lesions in monkeys, Brain Res. 143:313–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mishkin, M., and Pribram, K. H., 1954, Visual discrimination performance following partial ablations of the temporal lobe. I. Ventral vs. lateral, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47:14–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mishkin, M., and Pribram, K. H., 1955, Analysis of the effects of frontal lesion in monkeys. I. Variations of delayed alterations, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 48:492–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mohler, C. W., Goldberg, M. E., and Wurtz, R. H., 1973, Visual receptive fields of frontal eye field neurons, Brain Res. 61:385–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nauta, W. J. H., 1964, Some efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey, in: The Frontal Granular Cortex and behavior (J. M. Warren and K. Akert, eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 397–407.Google Scholar
  93. Nauta, W. J. H., 1972, Neural associations of the frontal cortex, Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 32:125–140.Google Scholar
  94. Niki, H., 1974a, Prefrontal unit activity during delayed alternation in the monkey. I. Relation to direction of response, Brain Res. 68:185–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Niki, H., 1974b, Prefrontal unit activity during delayed alternation in the monkey. II. Relation to absolute versus relative direction of response, Brain Res. 68:197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Niki, H., 1974c, Differential activity of prefrontal units during right and left delayed response trials, Brain Res. 70:346–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Niki, H., and Watanabe, M., 1976a, Prefrontal unit activity and delayed response: Relation to cue location versus direction of response, Brain Res. 105:79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Niki, H., and Watanabe, M., 1976b, Cingulate unit activity and delayed response, Brain Res. 110:381–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Niki, H., and Watanabe, M., 1979, Prefrontal and cingulate unit activity during timing behavior in the monkey, Brain Res. 171:213–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Niki, H., Sakai, M., and Kubota, K., 1972, Delayed alternation performance and unit activity of the caudate head and medial orbitofrontal gyrus in the monkey, Brain Res. 38:343–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Nishizawa, Y., Olsen, T. S., Larsen, B., and Lassen, N. A., 1982, Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words, J. Neurophysiol. 48:458–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nonneman, A. J., Voigt, J., and Kolb, B. E., 1974, Comparisons of behavioral effects of hippocampal and prefrontal cortex lesions in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 87:249–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Orgogozo, J. M., and Larsen, B., 1979, Activation of the supplementary motor area during voluntary movement in man suggests it works as a supra-motor area, Science 206:847–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pandya, D. N., and Kuypers, H. G. J. M., 1969, Cortico-cortical connections in the rhesus monkey, Brain Res. 13:13–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pandya, D. N., Hallett, M., and Mukherjee, S. K., 1969, Intra-and interhemispheric connections of the neocortical auditory system in the rhesus monkey, Brain Res. 14:49–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Pandya, D. N., Dye, P., and Butters, N., 1971, Efferent cortico-cortical projections of the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey, Brain Res. 31:35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Passingham, R., 1975, Delayed matching after selective prefrontal lesions in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Brain Res. 92:89–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Passingham, R. E., and Ettlinger, G., 1972, Tactile discrimination learning after selective prefrontal ablations in monkeys (Macaca mulatto), Neuropsychologia 10:17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Petrides, M., and Milner, B., 1982, Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal-and temporal-lobe lesions in man, Neuropsychologia 20:249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pinto-Hamuy, T., and Linck, P., 1965, Effect of frontal lesions on performance of sequential tasks by monkeys, Exp. Neurol. 12:96–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Pirch, J. H., Corbus, M. J., and Rigdon, G. C., 1983, Single-unit and slow potential responses from rat frontal cortex during associative conditioning, Exp. Neurol. 82:118–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pribram, K. H., and Tubbs, W. E., 1967, Short-term memory, parsing, and the primate frontal cortex, Science 156:1765–1767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pribram, K. H., Mishkin, M., Rosvold, H. E., and Kaplan, S. J., 1952, Effects on delayed-response performance of lesions of dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex of baboons, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 45:565–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ramier, A., and Hecaen, H., 1970, Role respectif des attaines frontales et de la lateralisation lesionalle dans les deficits de la “fluence verbale,” Rev. Neurol. 123:17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Ramier, A. M., and Hecaen, H., 1977, Les deficits au test de “fluence verbale” chez les sujets gauchers avec lesions hemispheriques unilaterales, Rev. Neurol. 133:571–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rebert, C. S., 1972, Cortical and subcortical slow potentials in the monkey’s brain during preparatory intervals, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 33:389–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Riseberg, J., and Ingvar, D. H., 1973, Patterns of activation in the gray matter of the dominant hemisphere during memorization and reasoning, Brain 96:737–756.Google Scholar
  118. Robinson, D. A., and Fuchs, A. F., 1969, Eye movements evoked by stimulation of frontal eye fields, J. Neurophysiol. 32:637–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Roland, P. E., Larsen, B., Lassen, N. A., and Skinhoj, E., 1980a, Supplementary motor area and other cortical areas in organization of voluntary movements in man, J. Neurophysiol. 43:118–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Roland, P. E., Vaernet, K., and Lassen, N. A., 1980b, Cortical activations in man during verbal report from visual memory, Neurosci. Lett. 5:478.Google Scholar
  121. Roland, P. E., Skinhoj, E., and Lassen, N. A., 1981, Focal activations of human cerebral cortex during auditory discrimination, J. Neurophysiol. 45:1139–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Roland, P., Meyer, E., Shibasahi, T., Yamamoto, Y., and Thompson, C., 1982, Regional cerebral blood flow changes in cortex and basal ganglia during voluntary movements in normal human volunteers, J. Neurophysiol. 48:467–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosene, D. L., and Van Hoesen, G. W., 1977, Hippocampal efferents reach widespread areas of cerebral cortex and amygdala in the rhesus monkey, Science 198:315–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rosenkilde, C. E., 1979, Functional heterogeneity of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey: A review, Behav. Neural Biol. 25:301–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rosenkilde, C. E., and Divac, I., 1975, DRL performance following anteromedial cortical ablations in rats, Brain Res. 95:142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rosenkilde, C. E., and Divac, I., 1976, Time-discrimination performance in cats with lesions in prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 90:343–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosenkilde, C. E., and Lawicka, W., 1977, Effects of medial and dorsal prefrontal ablations on a go left-go right time discrimination task in dogs, Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 37:209–221.Google Scholar
  128. Rosenkilde, C. E., Bauer, R. H., and Fuster, J. M., 1981a, Single cell activity in ventral prefrontal cortex of behaving monkeys, Brain Res. 209:375–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Rosenkilde, C. E., Rosvolk, H. E., and Mishkin, M., 1981b, Time discrimination with positional responses after selective prefrontal lesions in monkeys, Brain Res. 210:129–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sakai, M., 1974, Prefrontal unit activity during visually guided lever pressing reaction in the monkey, Brain Res. 81:297–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sasaki, K., and Gemba, H., 1982, Development and change of cortical field potentials during learning processes of visually initiated hand movements in the monkey, Exp. Brain Res. 48:429–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Schechter, P. B., and Murphy, E. H., 1975, Response characteristics of single cells in squirrel monkey frontal cortex, Brain Res. 96:66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Schulman, S., 1964, Impaired delayed response from thalamic lesions, Arch. Neurol. 11:477–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Stamm, J. S., 1963, Function of prefrontal cortex in timing behavior of monkeys, Exp. Neurol. 7:87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Stepien, I., Stepien, L., and Kreiner, J., 1963, The effects of total and partial ablation of the premotor cortex on the instrumental conditioned reflexes in dogs, Acta Biol. Exp. (Warsaw) 23:45–59.Google Scholar
  136. Stuss, D., Kaplan, E., Benson, D., Weir, W., Chiulli, S., and Sarazin, F., 1982, Evidence for the involvement of orbitofrontal cortex in memory functions: An interference effect, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 96:913–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Suzuki, H., and Azuma, M., 1977, Prefrontal neuronal activity during gazing at a light spot in the monkey, Brain Res. 126:497–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tanabe, T., Yarita, H., Iino, M., Ooshima, Y., and Takagi, S. F., 1975, An olfactory projection area in orbitofrontal cortex of the monkey, J. Neurophysiol. 38:1269–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Teuber, H. L., 1966, The frontal lobes and their functions: Further observations on rodents, carnivores, subhuman primates, and man, Int. J. Neurol. 5:282–300.Google Scholar
  140. Tubbs, W. E., 1969, Primate frontal lesions and the temporal structure of behavior, Behav. Sci. 14:347–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wagman, I. H., and Mehler, W. R., 1972, Physiology and anatomy of the cortico-oculomotor mechanism, Prog. Brain Res. 37:619–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Walter, W., 1973, Human frontal lobe function in sensory-motor association, in: Psychophysiology of the Frontal Lobes (K. H. Pribram and A.R. Luria, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 109–122.Google Scholar
  143. Walter, W., Cooper, R., Aldridge, V., McCallum, W., and Winter, A., 1964, Contingent negative variation: An electric sign of sensori-motor association and expectancy in the human brain, Nature 203:380–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Webster, K. E., 1965, The cortico-striatal projection in the cat, J. Anat. 99:329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquin M. Fuster
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Brain Research InstituteUniversity of California School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations