Many mammalian cell-surface proteins are linked posttranslationally to complex glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors which associate these proteins with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane (type V membrane proteins). At least 50 of such proteins are known today in mammals. GPI-proteins include complement regulatory factors 1, cell adhesion molecules 2, receptors of the Fc part of immunoglobulins 2, ADP-ribosyltransferases 3 and ectoenzymes 4, e.g. aminopeptidase P 5.6.7.. They have been found on a variety of cells including endothelial cells 8. They differ from peptide-anchored transmembrane proteins (type I – IV membrane proteins) in cell-surface distribution, lateral mobility and lipid environment 9.
KeywordsOuter Leaflet Relative Light Unit Human Aortic Endothelial Cell Stratum Corneum Lipid Myeloid Cell Line
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Hatanaka,M., Seya, T., Matsumoto, M., Hara, T., Nonaka, M., Inoue, N., Takeda, J. and Shimizu, A. (1996), Mechanisms by which the surface expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cornplement regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (CD 55) and CD 59 is lost in human leukaemia cell lines, Biochem.J. 314, 969–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2.Edwards, S.W. (1996), Cell signalling by ìntegrins and immunoglobulin receptors in primed neutrophiles, TIBS. 29, 362–367.Google Scholar
- 3.Nemoto.E., Stohlman,S., Dennert, G. (1996), Release of a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyltransferase from cytotoxic T cells upon activation, J.lmmunol. 156 (1), 85–92.Google Scholar
- 4.Lasch,J., Koelsch,R., Ladhoff,A.-M., and Hartrodt, B. (1986), Is the proline-specific aminopeptidase P of the intestinal brush border an integral membrane enzyme? Biomed.Biochim.Acta 45(7), 833–843.Google Scholar
- 5.Hooper,N.M., Hryszko, J. and Turner,A.M. (1990), Purification and characterization of pig kidney aminopeptidase P. A glycosyl-phospatidyl-inositol-anchored ectoenzyme, Biochem.J. 267. 509–5I5.Google Scholar
- 7.Orawski,A.T., Suzs, J.P. and Simmons,W.H. (1987), Aminopeptidase P from bovine lung: solubilization, properties, and potential role in bradykinin degradation, Mol.Cell.Biochem. 75, 123–132.Google Scholar
- 10.Ilangumara,S., Robinson, P.J. and Hoessli,D.C. (1996), Transfer of exogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol ( GPI)-linked molecules to plasma membranes, Trends in Cell Biol. 6, 163–167.Google Scholar
- 12.Vanhoof,G., Gossens,F. De Meester, I., Hendriks, D. and Scharpé,S. (1995), Proline motifs in peptides and their biological processing, FASEB J. 9, 736–744.Google Scholar
- 13.edo,A., Mandys,V., K epela,E. (1996), Cell Membrane-Bound Proteases Not “Only” Proteolysis, Physiol.Res. 45, 169-ss176.Google Scholar
- 14.Kricka,L.J. and Thorpe, G.H.G. (1990), Bioluminescent and Chemiluminescent Detection of Horseradish Peroxidase Labels in Ligand Binding Assays, In: Luminescence Immunoassays and Molecular Applications, Van Dyke,K. and Van Dyke, R.(eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, Boston, pp. 77–98.Google Scholar
- 15.Yang,Q., and Lundahl,P. (1994), Steric Immobilization of Liposomes in Chromatographic Gel Beads and Incorporation of Integral Membrane Proteins into Their Lipid Bilayers, Anal.Biochem. 218, 21-221.Google Scholar