Persistent Changes of Single-Cell Responses in Kitten Striate Cortex Produced by Pairing Sensory Stimulation with Iontophoretic Application of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators

  • Joachim M. Greuel
  • Heiko J. Luhmann
  • Wolf Singer


During a critical period of early postnatal life, the development of the kitten visual cortex depends to a substantial degree on sensory experience. In normally reared animals, most neurons respond to stimulation of both eyes and to movement of contours in either direction (Hubel and Wiesel, 1962). Responses to all orientations of visual stimuli are equally represented. Dramatic changes in this organization of the visual cortex can be obtained, however, by suturing one eye closed (Wiesel and Hubel, 1963) or by rearing kittens in an artificial environment (Blakemore and Cooper, 1970; Hirsch and Spinelli, 1970; Cynader and Chernenko, 1976; Singer, 1976). After monocular deprivation, the majority of cortical cells can no longer be driven from the deprived eye. Similarly, changes in orientation preferences are observed after rearing kittens in a visual environment containing only contours of a single orientation (Blakemore and Cooper, 1970; Hirsch and Spinelli, 1970).


Conditioned Stimulus Visual Cortex Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Response Property 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim M. Greuel
    • 1
  • Heiko J. Luhmann
    • 1
  • Wolf Singer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurophysiologyMax Planck Institute for Brain ResearchFrankfurt 71Federal Republic of Germany

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