Behavioral Pharmacology of Memory
Any discussion of biological processes must always involve oversimplification, because bio-molecular reactions are always part of a larger whole. Biomolecular processes may be of some interest in their own right, but their biological significance relates to their effects on a larger system.
The black box approach, in which the intermediate mechanisms between a stimulus and its induced response are not considered, can lead, and has led, to much useful information in physiology and biophysics. It poses questions that a mechanistically oriented approach can then be used to resolve. However, this approach is limited and in a sense outmoded.
In contrast, biochemists deal with small portions of large systems and frequently become so intrigued with the properties of these parts that they forget that they are, in situ, functioning elements within a complex interacting system....
These two basic approaches must be combined in order to obtain information that is biologically meaningful. Every aspect of an organism is designed by mutation and selection, but we must remember that while it is molecular detail that mutates, it is overall organismic function that is selected. Both the molecular and the black-box approaches must be used, but the area of real interest is in the linkage between them, the ways in which molecular detail is responsible for the overall response or for the living functioning organism.
KeywordsMemory Modulator Memory Retention Recall Score Equipotent Dose Memory Enhancement
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atkinson, D. E., 1975, Allosteric interactions in enzyme systems, in: Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems ( F. O. Schmitt and D. M. Schneider, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 43–56.Google Scholar
- Izquierdo, I., 1984, Endogenous state dependency: Memory depends on the relation between the neurohumoral and hormonal states present after training and at the time of testing, in: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory ( G. Lynch, J. L. McGaugh, and N. M. Weinberger, eds.), Guilford Press, New York, pp. 333–350.Google Scholar
- Kandel, E. R., 1985, Cellular mechanisms of learning and the biological basis of individuality, in: Principles of Neural Science, 2nd ed. ( E. R. Kandel and J. H. Schwartz, ed.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 816–833.Google Scholar
- Lee, M., and Gold, P. E., 1987, Memory enhancement and impairment with intracerebroventricular glucose injections (in preparation).Google Scholar
- McGaugh, J. L., Liang, K. C., Bennett, C., and Sternberg, D. B., 1984, Adrenergic influences on memory storage: Interaction of peripheral and central systems, in: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory ( G. Lynch, J. L. McGaugh, and N. M. Weinberger, eds.), Guilford Press, New York, pp. 313–332.Google Scholar
- Paalzow, L. K., Paalzow, G. H. M., and Tfelt-Hansen, P., 1985, Variability in bioavailability: Concentration versus effect, in: Variability in Drug Therapy: Description, Estimation, and Control ( M. Rowland, L. B. Sheiner, and J. L. Steimer, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 167–185.Google Scholar
- Schmitt, F. O., and Schneider, D. M., eds., 1975, Functional Linkage in Biomolecular Systems, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar