Molecular Genetic Approaches to Elucidating the Role of Hormones in Plant Development

  • Harry Klee
  • Charles Romano


Physiological studies conducted over the last half century have established a role for hormones in virtually every aspect of plant development. Most of the pioneering work on hormone action used approaches that involve exogenous application of a hormone or inhibitor. There are severe limitations to what we can learn in this manner. Exogenous application of any biological material is subject to limitations of uptake, transport, sequestration and metabolism. Further, it is difficult to quantitate the amount of active material within the target tissue. For these reasons, it has been generally difficult to establish a direct relationship between a hormone and a particular developmental process.


Transgenic Plant Ethylene Production Apical Dominance Crown Gall Ethylene Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aloni, R. 1988. Vascular differentiation within the plant. In Vascular differentiation and plant growth regulators, 39–62, ed. T.E. Timell. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aloni, R., Zimmermann, M.H. 1983. The control of vessel size and density along the plant axis-a new hypothesis. Differentiation 24:203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bleecker, A.B., Estelle, M.A., Somerville, C., Kende, H. (1988) Insensitivity to ethylene conferred by a dominant mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 241:1086–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, J.D., Bandurski, R.S. 1982. Chemistry and Physiology of the Bound Auxins. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol 33:403–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Estelle, M.A., Somerville, C.R. (1987) Auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis with an altered morphology. Mol. Gen. Genet. 206:200–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Glass, N.L., Kosuge, T. 1986. Cloning of the gene for indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase from Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi. J.Bacteriol. 166:598–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Guzman, P., Ecker, J.R. (1990) Exploiting the triple response of Arabidopsis to identify ethylene-related mutants.Google Scholar
  8. King, P.J. (1988) Plant hormone mutants. Trends Genet. 4:157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Klee, H.J., Hayford, M.B., Kretzmer, K.A., Barry, G.F., Kishore, G.M. 1991. Control of ethylene synthesis by expression of a bacterial enzyme in transgenic tomato plants. Pl. Cell 3:1187–1193.Google Scholar
  10. Klee, H.J., Horsch, R.B., Hinchee, M.A., Hein, M.B., Hoffmann, N.L. 1987. The effects of overproduction of two Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA auxin biosynthetic gene products in transgenic petunia plants. Genes & Dev. 1:86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Medford, J.I., Horgan, R., El-Sawi, Z., Klee, H.J. 1989. Alterations of endogenous cytokinins in transgenic plants using a chimeric isopentenyl transferase gene. T. Pl. Cell 4:403–413.Google Scholar
  12. Palni, L.M., Burch, L., Horgan, R. 1988. The effect of auxin concentration on cytokinin stability and metabolism. Planta 174:231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reid, J.B. (1990) Phytohormone mutants in plant research. J. Plant Growth Regul. 9:97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Roberto, F.F., Klee, H., White, F., Nordeen, R., Kosuge, T. 1990. Expression and fine structure of the gene encoding indole-3-acetyl-L-lysine synthetase from Pseudomonas savastanoi. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 87:5797–5801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Romano, C., Hein, M. and Klee, H. 1991. Inactivation of auxin in tobacco transformed with the indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase gene of Pseudomonas savastanoi. Genes & Dev. 5:438–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Skoog, F., Miller, C.O. 1957. Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 11:188–231.Google Scholar
  17. Smigocki, A., Owens, L. 1989. Cytokinin-to-auxin ratios and morphology of shoots and tissues transformed by a chimeric isopentenyl transferase gene. Plant Physiol. 91:808–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tamas, I.A. 1987. Hormonal regulation of apical dominance. In Plant hormones and their roles in plant growth and development, 393–410, ed. P.J. Davies. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wilson, A.K., Pickett, F.B., Turner, J.C., Estelle, M. (1990) A dominant mutation in Arabidopsis confers resistance to auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid. Mol. Gen. Genet. 222:377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yang, S.F., Hoffman, N.E. (1984) Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35:155–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Klee
    • 1
  • Charles Romano
    • 1
  1. 1.Monsanto CompanyChesterfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations