We now know that intermediate filaments (IF) are ubiquitous constituents of virtually all differentiated eukaryotic cells and are present in both the nucleus (as the nuclear lamina) and cytoplasm (as 10- to 15-nm-diameter filaments). However, the realization of this distribution has taken about 100 years. In retrospect, IF networks were first described in the late 1800s-early 1900s by cytologists studying fixed-stained tissue cells. It appears quite likely that many of the fibrillar structures revealed in the cytoplasm with the early silver and gold staining methods were IF. For example, the neurofibrils characteristic of neurons were described early on as an extensive “netlike structure” in the cell body surrounding the nucleus and extending into axons (Wilson, 1928, pp. 40–41). In addition, early cytologists such as Heidenhain and Del Rio depicted various types of columnar epithelial cells as containing extensive arrays of “tonofibrillae.” In stratified epithelia, many of the tonofibrillae were described as forming “intercellular plasma bridges” thought to traverse cell membranes (Wilson, 1928, pp. 40–41). These tonofibrils were probably the same fibrous arrays that can now be detected by immunofluorescence methods using antibodies directed against keratin, and the transcellular bridging areas most likely represent the IF bundle-desmosome complexes that typify keratinocytes and other epithelial cells (Jones and Goldman, 1985).
KeywordsIntermediate Filament Intermediate Filament Protein Nuclear Lamins Intermediate Filament Vimentin Filament
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