Methods of Determining the Routes of Intestinal Water Transport

  • R. J. Naftalin


The main reasons for measuring net water movements across epithelia are to determine the forces which generate the flows and to assess the routes by which water traverses the tissue. Determining water flows by indirect methods is a compromise between expediency and accuracy and is often based on unjustified assumptions with regard to tissue behaviour. For this reason direct measurement of water flow is preferable.


Crypt Cell Serosal Surface Colonic Crypt Capacitance Probe Osmotic Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahsan M. A., Ilundain A., Naftalin R. J., Sandhu B. and Smith P. M. 1987 Effects of theophylline, choleragen and loperamide on rabbit ileal fluid and electrolyte transport in vitro. Br. J. Pharmac. 92, 743–754.Google Scholar
  2. Ahsan, M. A., Naftalin R. J. and Smith P. M. 1988 A submucosal mechanism for catecholamine-induced increases in fluid absorption in rabbit ileum in vitro. J Physiol (tond.). 404, 385–405.Google Scholar
  3. Bleakman D. and Naftalin R.J. 1990 Hypertonic fluid absorption from rabbit descending colon in vitro Am. J. Physiol. 258, 21 G377–G390Google Scholar
  4. Carpi-Medina P. Lindemann B., Gonzalez E. and Whittembury G. 1984 The continuous measurement of tubular volume changes in response to step changes in contraluminal osmolality Pfluger’s Archiv. 400 343–348.Google Scholar
  5. Carpi-Medina P. and Whittembury G. 1988 Comparison of transcellular and transepithelial water osmotic permeabilities (Pos) in the isolated proximal tubule (PST) of the rabbit kidney. Pfluger’s Archiv 412 66–74.Google Scholar
  6. Cassuto J. J., Siewert A., Jodal M. and Lundgren 0. 1983 The involvement of intramural nerves in cholera toxin induced intestinal secretion. Acta Physiol. Scand. 117, 195–202.Google Scholar
  7. Curran P.F. 1960 Na, Cl and water transport by rat ileum in vitro J.Gen. Physiol. 43 1137–1148.Google Scholar
  8. Curran P.F. and Schwartz. G.F. 1960 Na, Cl and water transport by rat colon J. Gen. Physiol. 43; 555–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diamond, J. M. (1979) Osmotic water flow in leak epithelia. J. Membr. Biol. 51 195–216.Google Scholar
  10. Durbin R.P., Frank H. and Solomon A.K. 1956. Water flow through frog gastric mucosa. J. Gen. Physiol. 39 535–551.Google Scholar
  11. Duthie H.L., Watts. J.M., De Dombal F.T. and Galligher J.C. 1964 Serum electrolyte and colonic transfer of water and electrolytes in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 47 525–530.Google Scholar
  12. Fischbarg J. C., Warshawsky R.E. and Lim J.J. 1976 Pathways for hydraulically and osmotically induced water fluxes across epithelia. Nature 266 71–73.Google Scholar
  13. Frizzell, R. A., Koch, M.J. and Schultz S.G. 1976 Ion transport by rabbit colon. I Active and passive components. J. Membr Biol. 27 297–316 1976Google Scholar
  14. Fromm, M. and Schultz S.G. 1981 Potassium transport across rabbit descending colon in vitro evidence for single file diffusion through a paracellular pathway. J. Membr. Biol. 63 93–98.Google Scholar
  15. Gupta, B.J., Hall, T.A. and Naftalin R.J. 1978 Microprobe measurement of Na, K and Cl concentration profiles in epithelial cells and intercellular spaces of rabbit ileum. Nature 272 70–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, H.L and Shield, R. 1973 Absorption and secretion of water and electrolytes in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gut 14 784–789.Google Scholar
  17. Jodal, M., Lundgren. O. and Naftalin, R.J. 1987 J. Physiol Lond 391 29P. Katchalsky, A. and Curran, P.F. 1965 in in Biophysics. Harvard University Press Cambridge Mass.Google Scholar
  18. Kuwahara M. and Verkman A.S. 1988 Direct fluorescence measurement of diffusional water permeability in the vasopressin-sensitive kidney collecting tubule. Biophys. J. 54 587–593.Google Scholar
  19. Kuwahara, M., Berry, C.A. and Verkman.A.S. 1988 Rapid development of vasopressin-induced hydroosmosis in kidney collecting tubules measured by a new fluorescence technique. Biophys. J. 54: 595–602.Google Scholar
  20. McKie, A.T., Powrie W. and Naftalin R.J. 1990 Mechanical aspects of rabbit fecal dehydration. Am. J. Physiol 258, 21 G391–G394Google Scholar
  21. Minta A., Harootunian A.T., Koo J.P.Y and Tsien R.Y.19877 C’41,1 Biol. 105 89a.Google Scholar
  22. Naftalin R.J. and Pedley K.C. 1990 Video enhanced imaging of the fluorescent Na+ probe SBFI indicates that colonic crypts absorb fluid by generating a hypertonic interstitial fluid. FEBS Letts 294 187–194.Google Scholar
  23. Naftalin R. J. and Tripathi S. 1985 Passive water flows driven across the isolated rabbit ileum by osmotic, hydrostatic and electrical gradients. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 360, 27–50.Google Scholar
  24. Naftalin R. J. and Tripathi S. 1986 The roles of the paracellular and transcellular pathways and submucosal space in isotonic water absorption by rabbit ileum. J Physiol. (Land). 370, 409–432.Google Scholar
  25. Pappenheimer J. R. and Reiss K. Z. 1987 Contribution of solvent drag through intercellular junctions to absorption of nutrients by the small intestine of the rat J. Membr. Biol. 100, 123–136.Google Scholar
  26. Parsons D.S. and Paterson C. R. 1964 Fluid and solute transport across rat colonic mucosa Ph1 220–230.Google Scholar
  27. Persson B.E. and Spring K.R. 1982 Gallbladder epithelial cell hydraulic water permeability and volume regulation. J. Gen Physiol. 481–505.Google Scholar
  28. Powell, D.W. and Malawer S.J. 1968 The relationship between water and solute transport from isosmotic solutions by rat intestine. Am. J. Physiol. 227 1436–1444.Google Scholar
  29. Powell D.W. 1987 in tercellular junctions 2nd edition. Ed in Chief L.R.Johnson Raven Press Intestinal Water and Electrolyte transport. 1267–1306.Google Scholar
  30. Renkin E. and Gilmore J.E. 1973 Handbook of Physiology Renal Physiology Chap. 9 pp 185–348.Google Scholar
  31. Siegenbeek Van Heukelom J., Van Den Ham M.D., Albus H. and Groot J.A. 1981 Microscopical determination of the filtration permeability of the mucosal surface of goldfish intestinal epithelium. J Membr Biol. 63 31–39.Google Scholar
  32. Smyth D.H.and Taylor C.B. 1957 Coupled transport of water and solutes by an in vitro intestinal preparation. J.Physiol. 136 632–648.Google Scholar
  33. Spring K.R. 1979 Optical techniques for the evaluation of epithelial transport processes. Am. J Physiol. 237 F167–F174.Google Scholar
  34. Spring K.R. and Hope A. 1979 Fluid transport and the dimensions of cells and interspaces of living Necturus gallbladder J. Gen. Physiol. 73 287305.Google Scholar
  35. Tripathi S. and Boulpaep E.L.1988 Cell membrane water permeabilities and streaming currents in Ambystoma proximal tubule. Am.J. Physiol. 255 F188–F203.Google Scholar
  36. Tripathi S. and Boulpaep E.L. 1989 Mechanisms of water transport by epithelial cells. 74 385–417.Google Scholar
  37. Tsien, R.Y. 1989Annu. Rev Neursci. Chapter 12 227–253Google Scholar
  38. Van Os C.H., Wiedner G. and Wright E.M. 1979 Volume flows across gallbladder epithelium induced by small hydrostatic and osmotic gradients J. Membr. Biol. 49 1–20Google Scholar
  39. Welsh M.J. Smith P.L., Fromm M. and Frizzell R.A. 1982. Crypts are the site of intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion. Science Wash. DC 218 1219–1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wiedner G. 1976 Method to detect volume flows in the nanoliter range. Rev of Sci. Instr. 47, 775–776Google Scholar
  41. Zeuthen T. 1981 Relations between intracellular ion activities and extracellular osmolality in Necturus gallbladder epithelium. J Membr U 66 109–121.Google Scholar
  42. Zeuthen T. 1983 Ion activities in the lateral intercellular spaces of gallbladder epithelium transporting at low wxternal osmolarities. J. Membr. Biol 76 113–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Naftalin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyKing’s College LondonThe Strand LondonUK

Personalised recommendations