Photoelectron Spectroscopies: XPS and UPS

  • J. C. Vedrine
Part of the Fundamental and Applied Catalysis book series (FACA)


Photoelectron spectroscopy has been developed in the past 25 years and attracted wide interest among specialists in catalysis, particularly because of its sensitivity to the top first layers of solid materials(1) and to the chemical state of all elements, namely the oxidation state and covalency or ionic types of bondings. The technique suffers from its own physical principle as it must be carried out in a high vacuum. This feature requires cumbersome and expensive high-vacuum equipment, and obviously requires experimental conditions far from those of catalytic reactions.


Configuration Interaction Bimetallic Catalyst Molybdenum Content Antimony Oxide Bismuth Molybdate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Vedrine
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, IRCCNRSVilleurbanneFrance

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