The Varied Nature of Insomnia
  • Arthur J. Spielman
  • Paul B. Glovinsky
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


Chronic insomnia has a profound impact on the quality of life. The transient variety is common enough to assure that most people will nod knowingly at the list of deficits this problem produces. Reduced zest, alertness, physical stamina, concentration, good-naturedness, enjoyment, and productivity are all reported. Experienced in a cascade, these impairments produce a general sense of vulnerability and disorder.


Sleep Disturbance Sleep Disorder Sleep Duration Sleep Latency Sleep Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Recommended Readings

  1. Bootzin, R. R. & Nicassio, P. M. (1978). Behavioral treatments for insomnia. In: Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 6 ). New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  2. Hauri, P. (1982). The sleep disorders. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn. A Scope Publication.Google Scholar
  3. Spielman, A. J., Caruso, L., & Glovinsky, P. B. (1987a). A behavioral perspective on insomnia treatment. In: M. Ermin (Ed.), Psychiatric clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, pp. 541–553.Google Scholar


  1. Association of Sleep Disorders Centers. (1979). Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders (1st ed.). Prepared by the Sleep Disorders Classification Committee, H. P. Roffwarg, Chairman. Sleep, 2, 1–137.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, H. W, Webb, W. B., & Williams, R. L. (1966). The first-night effect: An EEG study of sleep. Psychophysiology, 2, 263–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bootzin, R. R., & Nicassio, P. M. (1978). Behavioral treatments for insomnia. In Progress in behavior modification (Vol. 6 ). New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  4. Carskadon, M. A., Dement, W. C., Mitler, M. M., Guilleminault, C., Zarcone, V. P, & Spiegel, R. (1976). Self-reports versus sleep laboratory fincings in 122 drug-free subjects with complaints of chronic insomnia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 1382–1388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coleman, R., Roffwarg, H. P, Kennedy, S., et al. (1982). Sleep-wake disorders based on a polysomnoagraphic diagnosis: A national cooperative study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 997–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Czeisler, C. A., Weitzman, E. D., Moore-Ede, M. C., Zimmerman, J. C., & Knauer, R. (1980). Human sleep: Its duration and organization depend on its circadian phase. Science, 210, 1264–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Czeisler, C. A., Allan, J. S., Strogatz, S. H., Ronda, J. M., Sanchez, R., Rios, C. D., Freitag, W. O., Richardson, G. S., & Kronauer, R. E. (1986). Bright light resets the human circadian pacemaker independent of the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Science 233, 667–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edinger, J. D., Hoelscher, T. J., Webb, M. D., Marsh, G. R., Radtke, R. A., & Erwin, C. W. (1989). Polysomnographic assessment of DIMS: Empirical evaluation of its diagnostic value. Sleep, 12 (4), 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ford, D. E., & Kamerow, D. B. (1989). Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262 (11), 1479–1484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freedman, R., & Sattler, H. (1982). Physiological and psychological factors in sleep-onset insomnia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 380–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gross, R. T., & Borkovec, T. D. (1982). Effects of a cognitive intrusion manipulation on the sleep-onset latency of good sleepers. Behavior Therapy, 13, 112–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hauri, P. (1989). Primary insomnia. In American Psychiatric Association treatments of psychiatric disorders: A task force report of the APA (Vol. 3 ). Washington, DC: APA, pp. 2424–2433.Google Scholar
  13. Kales, A., Caldwell, A. B., Preston, T. A., Healey, S., & Kales, J. D., (1976). Personality patterns in insomnia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1128–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karacan, I., Thornby, J. I., Anch, A. M., Booth, G. H., Williams, R. L., & Salis, P. J. (1976). Dose-related sleep disturbances induced by coffee and caffeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20, 682–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. King, D. A., Bouton, M. E., & Musty, R. E. (1987). Associative control of tolerance to the sedative effects of a short-acting benzodiazepine. Behavioral Neuroscience, 101, 104–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lack, L., Balfour, R., & Kalucy, R. (1985). The circadian rhythms of body temperature in poor sleepers. Sleep Research, 14, 298.Google Scholar
  17. Lavie, P. (1986). Ultrashort sleep-waking schedule. III. “Gates” and “forbidden zones” for sleep. Electroencephalographs and Clinical Neurophysiology, 63, 414–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lichstein, K. L., & Rosenthal, T. L. (1980). Insomniacs’ perceptions of cognitive versus somatic determinants of sleep disturbance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 105–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MacFarlane, J., Cleghorn, J. M., Brown, G. M., Kaplan, R., Brown, P., & Mittorn, J. (1984). Sleep Research, 13, 223.Google Scholar
  20. Mellinger, G. D., Balter, M. B., & Uhlenhuth EH. (1985). Insomnia and its treatment: Prevalence and correlates. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monroe, L. J. (1967). Psychological and physiological differences between good and poor sleepers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morris, M., Lack, L., & Dawson, D. (1990). Sleep-onset insomniacs have delayed temperature rhythms. Sleep, 13 (1), 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nicassio, P. M., Mendlowitz, D. R., Fussell, J. J., & Petras, L. (1985). The phenomenology of the pre-sleep state: The development of the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Seidel, W. E, Ball, S., Cohen, S., Patterson, N., Yost, D., & Dement, W. C. (1984). Daytime alertness in relation to mood, performance, and nocturnal sleep in chronic insomniacs and noncomplaining sleepers. Sleep, 7 (3), 230–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Siegel, S. (1975). Evidence from rats that morphine tolerance is a learned response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89, 498–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Soldatos, C. R., Kales, J., Scharf, M. B., Bixler, E. O., & Kales, A. (1980). Cigarette smoking associated with sleep difficulty. Science, 207, 551–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Spielman, A. J. (1986). Assessment of insomnia. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 6, 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Spielman, A. J., Caruso, L., & Glovinsky, P. B. (1987a). A behavioral perspective on insomnia treatment. In M. Ermin (Ed.), Psychiatric clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, pp. 541–553.Google Scholar
  29. Spielman, A. J., Saskin, P, & Thorpy, M. J. (1987b). Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep, 10 (1), 45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Stepanski, E., Zorick, F., Roehrs, T., Young, D., & Roth, T. (1988). Daytime alertness, in patients with chronic insomnia compared with asymptomatic control subjects. Sleep, 11 (1), 54–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sterman, M. B., Clemente, C. D., & Wyrwicka, W. (1963). Forebrain inhibitory mechanisms: Conditioning of basal forebrain induced EEG synchronization and sleep. Experimental Neurology, 7 (5), 404–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Strogatz, S. H., Kronauer, R. E., & Czeisler, C. A. (1987). Circadian pacemaker interferes with sleep onset at specific times each day: Role in insomnia. American Physiological Society, 1987, R172 - R178.Google Scholar
  33. Sweetwood, H. L., Kripke, D. E, Grant, I., Yager, J., & Gerst, M. S. (1976). Sleep disorder and psychobiological symptomatology in male psychiatric outpatients and male nonpatients. Psychosomatics Medicine, 38, 373–378.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur J. Spielman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul B. Glovinsky
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Insomnia Treatment CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations