Psychological Maltreatment of Spouses

  • Susan M. Andersen
  • Teresa Ramirez Boulette
  • Amy H. Schwartz

Abstract

Abusive behavior in the context of intimate relationships can take many forms, ranging from intense psychological intimidation and threats of violence to life-threatening episodes of physical assault. In virtually all cases of physical violence, however, some form of psychological maltreatment is also present. Psychological maltreatment, in fact, can quite reasonably be considered a common denominator in ongoing interpersonal relationships that are violent.

Keywords

Domestic Violence Police Officer Personality Disorder Violent Behavior Family Violence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, S. M. (1985). Identifying coercion and deception in social systems. In B. Kilbourne (Ed.), Divergent perspectives on the new religions (pp. 12–23). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.Google Scholar
  5. Andersen, S. M. (in press). The inevitability of future suffering: The role of depressive predictive certainty in depression. Social Cognition.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, S. M., & Harthorn, B. H. (1989). The recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders by primary care physicians. Medical Care, 27, 869–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen, S. M., & Harthorn, B. H. (1990). Changing the psychiatric knowledge of primary care physicians: The effects of a brief intervention on clinical diagnosis and treatment. General Hospital Psychiatry, 12, 177–190.Google Scholar
  8. Andersen, S. M. & Lyon, J. E. (1987). Anticipating undesired outcomes: The role of outcome certainty in the onset of depressive affect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 428–443.Google Scholar
  9. Andersen, S. M., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1980). Resisting mind control. USA Today, 109, 44–47.Google Scholar
  10. Attorney General’s Task Force on Family Violence. (1984). Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Baron, R., & Byrne, D. (1977). Social psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  13. Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berk, R. A., Berk, S. F., Loseke, D. R., & Rauma, D. (1983). Mutual combat and other family violence myths. In D. Finkelhor, R. J. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), The dark side of families (pp. 197–212). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Berkowitz, L. (1974). Some detriments of impulsive aggression: The role of mediated associations with reinforcements for aggression. Psychological Review, 81, 165–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berkowitz, L. (1983). Aversively stimulated aggression: Some parallels and differences in research with animals and humans. American Psychologist, 38, 1135–1144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bettelheim, B. (1943). Individual and mass behavior in extreme situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38, 417–452.Google Scholar
  18. Boulette, T. R. (1981, August). The marital brainwashing syndrome. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  19. Boulette, T. R., & Andersen, S. M. (1985). “Mind control” and the battering of women. Community Mental Health Journal, 21, 109–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowker, L. H. (1983). Battered wives, lawyers, and district attorneys: An examination of law in action. Journal of Criminal Justice, 11, 403–412.Google Scholar
  21. Bowker, L. H., & Maurer, L. (1987). The medical treatment of battered wives. Women and Health, 12, 25–45.Google Scholar
  22. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  23. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss (Vol. 3). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Boyd, V. D. (1978, September). Domestic violence: Treatment alternatives for the male batterers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  26. Brockner, J., & Rubin, J. Z. (1985). Entrapment in escalating conflicts: A social psychological analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  27. Brockner, J., Rubin, J. Z., & Lang, E. (1981). Face-saving and entrapment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 68–79.Google Scholar
  28. Cantor, N., & Mischel, W. (1979). Prototypes in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 3–52.Google Scholar
  29. Carlson, B. E. (1977). Battered women and their assailants. Social Work, 22, 455–465.Google Scholar
  30. Coleman, D. H., & Straus, M. A. (1986). Marital power, conflict, and violence in a nationally representative sample of American couples. Violence and Victims, 12, 141–157.Google Scholar
  31. Davidson, T. (1978). Conjugal crime: Understanding and changing the wife beating pattern. New York: Hawthorn.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, L. V. (1987). Battered women: The transformation of a social problem. Social Work, 32, 306–311.Google Scholar
  33. Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. (1979). Violence against wives. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Dutton, D. G. (1983, April). Masochism as an explanation for traumatic bonding: An example of thefundamental attribution error.” Paper presented at the American Orthopsychiatric Association Convention, Boston.Google Scholar
  35. Dutton, D. G. (1987). Wife assault: Social psychological contributions to criminal justice policy. Applied Social Psychology Annual, 7, 238–261.Google Scholar
  36. Dutton, D. G., & Browning, J. J. (1988). Concern for power, fear of intimacy, and aversive stimuli for wife assault. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 163–175). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Dutton, D. G., & Painter, S. L. (1981). Traumatic bonding: The development of emotional attachments in battered women and other relationships of intermittent abuse. Victimology: An International Journal, 1, 139–155.Google Scholar
  38. Dutton, D. G., Fehr, B., & McEwen, H. (1982). Severe wife battering as deindividuated violence. Victimology, 7, 13–23.Google Scholar
  39. Egeland, B., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (in press). Breaking the cycle of abuse: Relationship predictors. Child Development.Google Scholar
  40. Eisenberg, S. E. & Micklow, P. L. (1977). The assaulted wife: Catch-22 revisited. Women’s Rights Law Reporter, 58, 138–161.Google Scholar
  41. Emery, R. E. (1988). Marriage, divorce and children’s adjustment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Emery, R. E. (1989). Family violence. American Psychologist, 44, 321–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Enroth, R. (1977). Youth, brainwashing and the extremist cults. Ann Arbor, MI: Zondervan.Google Scholar
  44. Fagan, J. A., Stewart, D. K., & Hansen, K. V. (1983). Violent men or violent husbands? In D. Finkelhor, R. Gelles, G. Hotaling, & M. Straus (Eds.), The dark side of families (pp. 49–68). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Faulk, M. (1974). Men who assault their wives. Medicine, Science, and Law, 14, 180–183.Google Scholar
  46. Ferraro, K. J. (1988). An existential approach to battering. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 126–138). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Ferraro, K. J., & Johnson, J. M. (1983). How women experience battering. Social Problems, 30, 325–339.Google Scholar
  48. Finn, J. (1985). The stresses and coping behavior of battered women. Social Casework, 66, 341–349.Google Scholar
  49. Fleming, J. B. (1979). Stopping wife abuse. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  50. Freire, P. (1984). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  51. Freud, S. (1938). Three contributions to the theory of sex. In A. A. Brill (Ed.), The basic writings of Sigmund Freud. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  52. Frieze, I. J., Parsons, J., Johnson, P., Ruble, D. N., & Zellman, G. L. (1978). Women and sex roles: A social psychological perspective. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  53. Gayford, J. J. (1975). Wife battering: A preliminary study of 100 cases. British Medical Journal, 1, 194–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gelles, R. (1974). The violent home: A study of physical aggression between husbands and wives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Gelles, R. (1976). Abused wives: Why do they stay? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 659–668.Google Scholar
  56. Gondolf, E. W., & Hanneken, J. (1987). The gender warrior: Reformed batterers on abusers, treatment, and change. Journal of Family Violence, 2, 177–191.Google Scholar
  57. Goodstein, R. K. (1987). Violence in the home: I. The battered spouse syndrome. Carrier Foundation Letter, 125, 1–4.Google Scholar
  58. Goodstein, R. K., & Page, A. W. (1981). Battered wife syndrome: Overview of dynamics and treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1036–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gove, W. (1979). Sex differences in the epidemiology of mental disorder: Evidence and explanations. In E. S. Gomberg & V. F. Brunner (Eds.), Gender and disordered behavior (pp. 23–68). New York: Mazel.Google Scholar
  60. Hamberger, L. K., & Hastings, J. E. (1986). Personality correlates of men who abuse their partners: A cross-validation study. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 323–341.Google Scholar
  61. Harris, L., and Associates (1979). A survey of spousal violence against women in Kentucky. Report prepared for the Kentucky Commission on Women.Google Scholar
  62. Hilberman, E. (1980). Overview: The wife beater’s wife considered. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1336–1347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hilberman, E., & Munson, M. (1978). Sixty battered women. Victimology: An International Journal, 2, 460–471.Google Scholar
  64. Hornung, C. A., McCullough, B. C, & Sugimoto, T. (1981). Status relationships in marriage: Risk factors in spouse abuse. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 675–692.Google Scholar
  65. Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134.Google Scholar
  66. Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D. A., Telford, D. A., & Austin, G. (1986). The impact of police charges in incidents of wife abuse. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 37–49.Google Scholar
  67. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798–1809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnston, M. E. (1988). Correlates of early violence experience among men who are abusive toward female mates. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 192–202). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Jones, E. E., & Nisbett, R. (1972). The actor and observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  70. Kalmuss, D. (1984). The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Journal of Marriage and Family, 47, 11–19.Google Scholar
  71. Kalmuss, D., & Straus, M. A. (1982). Wife’s marital dependency and wife abuse. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 277–286.Google Scholar
  72. Kantor, G. K., & Straus, M. A. (1987). The “drunken bum” theory of wife beating. Social Problems, 34, 213–230.Google Scholar
  73. Kaplan, H. B. (1972). Toward a general theory of psychosocial deviance: The case of aggressive behavior. Social Science and Medicine, 6, 593–617.Google Scholar
  74. Kipnis, D. (1976). The powerholders. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Kurz, D. (1987). Emergency department responses to battered women: Resistance to medicalization. Social Problems, 34, 69–81.Google Scholar
  76. Labell, L. S. (1979). Wife abuse: A sociological study of battered women and their mates. Victimology, 4, 258–267.Google Scholar
  77. Lerner, M. J. (1970). The desire for justice and reactions to victims. In J. McCauley & L. Berkowitz (Eds.), Altruism and helping behaviors: Social psychological studies of some antecedents and consequences. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Libow, J., & Doty, D. (1979). An exploratory approach to self blame and self derogation by rape victims. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 670–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maccoby, E., & Jacklin, C. (1974). The psychology of sex differences (Vol. 1). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Malamuth, N. Feshback, S., & Jaffee, Y. (1977). Sexual arousal and aggression: Recent experiments and theoretical issues. Journal of Social Issues, 22, 110–113.Google Scholar
  81. Margolin, G. (1988). Interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with marital violence. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 203–217). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  82. Martin, D. (1976). Battered wives. San Francisco: Glide.Google Scholar
  83. Mitchell, R. E., & Hodson, C. A. (1983). Coping with domestic violence: Social support and psychological health among battered women. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 629–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  85. Ochberg, F. M. (1971). Victims of terrorism. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 41, 73–74.Google Scholar
  86. Platt, J. (1973). Social traps. American Psychologist, 28, 641–651.Google Scholar
  87. Ponzetti, J. J., Cate, R. M., & Koval, J. E. (1982). Violence between couples: Profiling the male abuser. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61, 222–224.Google Scholar
  88. Ptacek, J. (1988). The clinical literature on men who batter: A review and critique. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 149–162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Rajecki, P., Lamb, M., & Obsmacher, P. (1978). Toward a general theory of infantile attachment: A comparative review of aspects of the social bond. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 417–464.Google Scholar
  90. Rosch, E. (1978). Principles of categorization. In E. Rosch & B. B. Lloyd (Eds.), Cognition and categorization (pp. 27–48). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  91. Rosenbaum, A. (1986). Of men, macho, and marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 121–129.Google Scholar
  92. Rosenbaum, A., & O’Leary, K. D. (1981). Marital violence: Characteristics of abusive couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 63–71.Google Scholar
  93. Rounsaville, B. (1978). Theories of marital violence: Evidence from a study of battered women. Victimology, 3, 11–31.Google Scholar
  94. Rounsaville, B., & Weissman, M. M. (1978). Battered women: A medical problem requiring detection. International Journal of Psychiatry and Medicine, 67, 760–761.Google Scholar
  95. Rouse, L. P. (1988). Conflict tactics used by men in marital disputes. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 176–191). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  96. Roy, M. (Ed.). (1977). Battered women: A psychosocial study of domestic violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  97. Roy, M. (Ed.). (1982). The abrasive partner: An analysis of domestic violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  98. Rule, B. G., & Nesdale, A. R. (1976). Emotional arousal and aggressive behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 851–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ryback, R. F., & Bassuk, E. L. (1986). Homeless battered women and their shelter network. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 30, 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Saunders, D. G. (1986). When battered women use violence: Husband-abuse or self-defense? Violence and Victims, 1, 47–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Saunders, D. G., & Size, P. B. (1986). Attitudes about woman abuse among police officers, victims, and victim advocates. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 25–42.Google Scholar
  102. Schulman, M. (1979). A survey of spousal violence against women in Kentucky. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.Google Scholar
  103. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  104. Shainess, N. (1977). Psychological aspects of wife-battering. In M. Roy (Ed.), Battered women: A psychosocial study of domestic violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  105. Sherman, L. W., & Berk, R. A. (1984). The Minneapolis domestic violence experiment. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.Google Scholar
  106. Singer, T. (1979, January). Coming out of cults. Psychology Today, 72-82.Google Scholar
  107. Snyder, D. K., & Fruchtman, L. A. (1981). Differential patterns of wife abuse: A data-based typology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 878–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stark, E., Flitcraft, A. & Frazier, W. (1979). Medicine and patriarchal violence: The social construction of a private event. International Journal of Health and Services, 9, 461–493.Google Scholar
  109. Staw, B. M. (1976). Knee deep in the big muddy: A study of escalating commitment to a chosen course of action. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 27–42.Google Scholar
  110. Steinmetz, S. K. (1977). The cycle of violence: Assertive, aggressive and violent family interaction. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  111. Straus, M. A. (1977). Sociological perspective on the prevention and treatment of wife beating. In M. Roy (Ed.), Battered women: A psychosocial study of domestic violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  112. Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  113. Strube, M. J. (1988). The decision to leave an abusive relationship: Empirical evidence and theoretical issues. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 236–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Suomi, S. J., & Harlow, H. (1977). Production and alleviation of depressive behavior in monkeys. In J. D. Masser & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Psychopathology: Experimental models (pp. 131–173). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. Van Hasselt, V. B., Morrison, R. L., & Bellack, A. S. (1985). Alcohol use in wife abusers and their spouses. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 127–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker, L. E. (1978). Battered women and learned helplessness. Victimology, 2, 525–534.Google Scholar
  117. Walker, L. E. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  118. Walker, L. E. (1981). Battered women: Sex roles and clinical issues. Professional Psychology, 12, 81–91.Google Scholar
  119. Walker, L. E. (1983). Battered women in the correctional system. Paper presented at the American Correctional Association Annual Congress, Chicago.Google Scholar
  120. Walker, L. E. (1984). The battered women syndrome. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  121. Walker, L. E. (1987). Identifying the wife at risk of battering. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 21, 107–114.Google Scholar
  122. Walker, L. E. (1988). The battered woman syndrome. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 139–148). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  123. West, L. J. (1963). Brainwashing. In A. Deutsch (Ed.), The encyclopedia of mental health (Vol. 1). New York: Franklin Watts.Google Scholar
  124. Whitehurst, R. N. (1984). Violence in husband-wife interaction. In S. R. Steinmetz & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Violence in the family. New York: Dodd Mead.Google Scholar
  125. Wolfe, D. A., Jaffe, P., Wilson, S. K., & Zak, L. (1988). A multivariate investigation of children’s adjustment to family violence. In G. T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Family abuse and its consequences (pp. 228–239). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  126. Worden, W. (1982). Grief counseling and grief therapy. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  127. Zimbardo, P. G., Ebbesen, E. B., & Maslach, C. (1977). Influencing attitudes and changing behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. Andersen
    • 1
  • Teresa Ramirez Boulette
    • 2
  • Amy H. Schwartz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Santa Barbara County Mental Health Care ServicesSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations