Nutrition and Human Cancer

  • John Higginson
  • Michael J. Sheridan
Part of the Human Nutrition book series (HUNU, volume 7)


The role of diet in human carcinogenesis began to receive serious attention in the early twentieth century, following the demonstration that a number of dyes used as food colorants were carcinogenic in animals. The potential hazard of food additives and contaminants became of general concern by the mid-1930s and motivated much of the deliberations of the joint World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization (WHO/ FAO) Committee on food additives and pesticides in the postwar period (1958). This concern in the United States culminated in the 1958 passage of Public Law 85–929, known as the Delaney Amendment. Nonetheless, with the possible exception of aflatoxin, no animal carcinogen in food has been unequivocally demonstrated to produce cancer in humans following ingestion. Thus, despite their number, and after intensive examination, it has been concluded by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) that food additives and contaminants do not account for a significant number of human cancers (1982). However, interpretation of data from animal studies on carcinogens in the diet remains of great importance for regulatory policies at both the national and international level.


Breast Cancer Gastric Cancer Esophageal Cancer Dietary Pattern Dietary Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheson, E. D., and Doll, R., 1964, Dietary factors in carcinoma of the stomach: A study of 100 cases and 200 controls, Gut 5: 126–131.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, B. N., 1983, Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens, oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases, Science 221: 1256–1264.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, B., and Doll, R., 1975, Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practice, Int. J. Cancer 15: 617–631.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, B., Garrod, A., and Doll, R., 1976, A retrospective study of renal cancer with special reference to coffee and animal protein consumption, Br. J. Cancer 33: 127–136.Google Scholar
  5. Austin, D. F., 1982, Larynx, in: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention ( D. Schottenfeld and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr., eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 554–563.Google Scholar
  6. Bartsch, H., Ohshima, H., Munoz, N., Crespi, M., Cassale, V., Ramazotti, V., Lambert, R., Minaire, Y., Forichon, J., and Walters, C. L., 1984, In vivo nitrosation, precancerous lesions and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract: On-going studies and preliminary results, in: N-Nitroso Compounds: Occurrence, Biological Effects and Relevance to Human Cancer, IARC Scientific Publications No. 57 (I. K. O’Neill, R. C. von Borstel, J. E. Long, C. T. Miller, and H. Bartsch, eds.), International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp. 955–962.Google Scholar
  7. Bauer, H. G., Asp, N. G., Oste, R., Dahlqvist, A., and Fredlund, P. E., 1979, Effect of dietary fiber on the induction of colorectal tumors and fecal glucuronidase activity in the rat, Cancer Res. 39: 3752–3756.Google Scholar
  8. Beasley, R. P., Lin, C. C., Hwan, L. Y., and Chien, C. S., 1981, Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus: A prospective study of 22,707 men in Taiwan, Lancet 2: 1129–1133.Google Scholar
  9. Berg, J. W., and Howell, M. A., 1974, The geographic pathology of bowel cancer, Cancer 34: 805–814.Google Scholar
  10. Bingham, S., Williams, D. R., Cole, T. J., and James, W. P., 1979, Dietary fibre and regional large-bowel cancer mortality in Britain, Br. J. Cancer 40: 456–463.Google Scholar
  11. Bingham, S. A., Williams, D. R. R., and Cummings, J. H., 1985, Dietary fibre consumption in Britain; New estimates and their relation to large bowel cancer mortality, Br. J. Cancer 52: 399–402.Google Scholar
  12. Bjelke, E., 1974, Epidemiologic studies of cancer of the stomach, colon and rectum with special emphasis on the role of diet, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 31: [Suppl.] 1–235.Google Scholar
  13. Blair, A., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., 1978, Geographic patterns of prostate cancer in the United States, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61: 1379–1384.Google Scholar
  14. Broitman, S. A., Vitale, J. J., Vavrousek-Jakuba, E., and Gottlieb, L. S., 1977, Polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol and large bowel tumorigenesis, Cancer 40: 2455–2463.Google Scholar
  15. Broitman, S. A., Velez, H., and Vitale, J. J., 1981, A possible role of iron deficiency in gastric cancer in Colombia, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 135: 155–181.Google Scholar
  16. Burkitt, D. P., 1971, Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum, Cancer 28: 3–13.Google Scholar
  17. Carroll, K. K., 1975, Experimental evidence of dietary factors and hormone-dependent cancers, Cancer Res. 35: 3374–3383.Google Scholar
  18. Carroll, K. K., 1980, Lipids and carcinogenesis, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 3 (4): 253–271.Google Scholar
  19. Carroll, K. K., 1984, Influence of diet on mammary cancer, Nutr. Cancer 2: 232–236.Google Scholar
  20. Carroll, K. K., and Khor, H. T., 1970, Effects of dietary fat and dose level of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on mammary tumor incidence in rats, Cancer Res. 30: 2260–2264.Google Scholar
  21. Carroll, K. K., and Khor, H. T., 1971, Effects of level and type of dietary fat on incidence of mammary tumors induced in female Sprague—Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, Lipids 6: 415–420.Google Scholar
  22. Carroll, K. K., and Khor, H. T., 1975, Dietary fat in relation to tumorigenesis, Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 10: 308–353.Google Scholar
  23. Cook-Mozaffari, P. J., Azordegan, F., Day, N. E., Ressicaud, A., Sabai, D., and Aramesh, B., 1979, Oesophageal cancer studies in the Caspian Littoral of Iran: Results of a case—control study, Br. J. Cancer 39: 293–309.Google Scholar
  24. Correa, P., Haenszel, W., Cuello, W., Tannenbaum, S., and Archer, M., 1975, A model for gastric cancer epidemiology, Lancet 2: 58–59.Google Scholar
  25. Correa, P., Cuello, C., Fajardo, L. F., Haenszel, W., Bolanos, O., and de Raminez, B., 1983, Diet and gastric cancer: Nutrition survey in a high risk area, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70: 673–678.Google Scholar
  26. Cummings, J. H., 1985, Cancer of the large bowel, in: Dietary Fiber, Fiber-Depleted Foods and Disease ( H. S. Trowell, D. Burkitt, and K. W. Heaton, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 161–189.Google Scholar
  27. Cummings, J. H., 1986, Dietary carbohydrates and cancer, Nutr. Cancer 8: 10–14.Google Scholar
  28. Cummings, J. H., Southgate, D. A. T., Branch, W., Houston, H., Jenkins, D. J., and James, W. P., 1978, Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran and guar gum, Lancet 1: 5–8.Google Scholar
  29. Cummings, J. H., Englyst, H. N., and Wood, R., 1985, Determination of dietary fibre in cereals and cereal products. Collaborative Trials. Part I. Initial Trial, J. Assoc. Off. Publ. Analysts 23: 1–35.Google Scholar
  30. Dales, L. G., Friedman, G. D., Ury, H. K., Grossman, S., and Williams, S. R., 1979, A case–control study of relationships of diet and other traits to colorectal cancer in American blacks, Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 132–144.Google Scholar
  31. Day, N. E., Munoz, N., and Ghadirian, P., 1982, The epidemiology of oesophageal cancer: A review, in: Epidemiology of Cancer of the Digestive Tract ( P. Correa and W. Haenszel, eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 21–57.Google Scholar
  32. De Jong, U. W., Breslow, N., Hong, J. G. E., Sridharan, M., and Shanmugaratnam, K., 1974, Aetiological factors in oesophageal cancer in Singapore Chinese, Int. J. Cancer 13: 291–303.Google Scholar
  33. Delaney Amendment, Food Additives Amendment of 1958 to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, Public Law 85–929, Sept. 6, 1958.Google Scholar
  34. de Waard, F., 1986, Dietary fat and mammary cancer, Nutr. Cancer 8: 5–8.Google Scholar
  35. de Waard, F., and Baanders-van Halewijn, E. A., 1974, A prospective study in general practice on breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, Int. J. Cancer 14: 153–160.Google Scholar
  36. Doll, R., and Peto, R., 1981, The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66: 1192–1308.Google Scholar
  37. Drasar, B. S., and Irving, D., 1973, Environmental factors and cancer of the colon and breast, Br. J. Cancer 27: 167–172.Google Scholar
  38. Dungal, H., 1961, The special problem of cancer of the stomach in Iceland, J.A.M.A. 178: 789–798.Google Scholar
  39. Enig, M. G., Munn, R. J., and Keeney, M., 1978, Dietary fat and cancer trends—A critique, Fed. Proc. 37: 2215–2220.Google Scholar
  40. Enstrom, J. E., 1975a, Cancer mortality among Mormons, Cancer 36: 325–341.Google Scholar
  41. Enstrom, J. E., 1975b, Colorectal cancer and consumption of beef and fat, Br. J. Cancer 32: 432–439.Google Scholar
  42. Enstrom, J. E., 1980, Health and dietary practices and cancer mortality among California Mormons, in: Cancer Incidence in Defined Populations, Banbury Report 4 ( J. Cairns, J. L. Lyon, and M. Skolnick, eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp. 69–92.Google Scholar
  43. Feinleib, M., 1983, Review of the epidemiological evidence for a possible relatinship between hypocholesterolemia and cancer, Cancer Res. 43 [Suppl.]: 2503s - 2507s.Google Scholar
  44. Fraser, P., 1985, Nitrates: Epidemiological evidence, in: Interpretation of Negative Epidemiological Evidence for Carcinogenicity, IARC Scientific Publication No. 65 ( N. J. Wald and R. Doll, eds.), International Agency for Cancer Research, Lyon, pp. 183–194.Google Scholar
  45. Friedman, G. D., Blaner, W. S., Goodman, D. S., Vogelman, J. H., Brind, J. L., Hoover, R., Fireman, B. H., and Orentreich, N., 1986, Serum retinol and retinol-binding protein levels do not predict subsequent lung cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 123: 781–899.Google Scholar
  46. Gaskill, S. P., McGuire, W. L., Osborne, C. K., and Stern, M. P., 1979, Breast cancer mortality and diet in the United States, Cancer Res. 39: 3628–3637.Google Scholar
  47. Geboers, J., Joossens, J. V., and Carroll, K. K., 1985a, Introductory remarks to the consensus statement on provisional dietary guidelines, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis (J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 337–342.Google Scholar
  48. Geboers, J., Joossens, J. V., Kesteloot, H., 1985b, Epidemiology of stomach cancer, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis ( J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 81–95.Google Scholar
  49. Ghadirian, P., Stein, G., Gorodestzky, C., Roberfroid, M., Mahon, G. A. T., Bartsch, H., and Day, N. E., 1985, Oesophageal cancer studies in the Caspian Littoral of Iran: Some residual results, including opium use as a risk factor, Int. J. Cancer 35: 593–597.Google Scholar
  50. Glauert, H. P., Bennink, M. R., and Sander, C. H., 1981, Enhancement of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice by dietary agar, Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 19: 281–286.Google Scholar
  51. Gori, G. B. (ed.), 1986a, A symposium: Proceedings of a Joint ECP–IUNS Workshop on Diet and Human Carcinogenesis (Aarhus, Denmark: June, 1985), Nutr. Cancer 8:1–41.Google Scholar
  52. Gori, G. B. (ed.), 1986b, Consensus statement on provisional dietary guidelines, Nutr. Cancer 8:39–40.Google Scholar
  53. Graham, S., 1983a, Results of case–control studies of diet and cancer in Buffalo, New York, Cancer Res. 43: [Suppl.] 2409s - 2413s.Google Scholar
  54. Graham, S., 1983b, Toward a dietary prevention of cancer, Epidemiol. Rev. 5: 38–50.Google Scholar
  55. Graham, S., 1983c, Diet and cancer: Epidemiologic aspects, in: Reviews in Cancer Epidemiology, Vol. 2 ( A. M. Lilienfield, ed.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  56. Graham, S., Schotz, W., and Martino, P., 1972, Alimentary factors in the epidemiology of gastric cancer, Cancer 30: 927–938.Google Scholar
  57. Graham, S., Dayal, H., Swanson, M., Mittelman, A., and Wilkinson, G., 1978, Diet in the epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61: 709–714.Google Scholar
  58. Graham, S., Mettlin, C., Marshall, J., Priore, R., Rzepka, T., and Shedd, D., 1981, Dietary factors in the epidemiology of cancer of the larynx, Am. J. Epidemiol. 113: 675–680.Google Scholar
  59. Graham, S., Marshall, J., Mettlin, C., Rzepka, T., Nemoto, T., and Byers, T., 1982, Diet in the epidemiology of breast cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 116: 68–75.Google Scholar
  60. Gray, G. E., Pike, M. C., and Henderson, B. E., 1979, Breast-cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices, Br. J. Cancer 39: 1–7.Google Scholar
  61. Gregor, O., Toman, R., and Prusova, F., 1969, Gastrointestinal cancer and nutrition, Gut 10: 1031–1034.Google Scholar
  62. Haenszel, W., 1961, Cancer mortality among the foreign-born in the United States, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 26: 37–132.Google Scholar
  63. Haenszel, W., and Dawson, E. A., 1965, A note on mortality from cancer of the colon and rectum in the United States, Cancer 18: 265–272.Google Scholar
  64. Haenszel, W., Kurihara, M., Segi, M., and Lee, R. K. C., 1972, Stomach cancer among Japanese in Hawaii, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 969–988.Google Scholar
  65. Haenszel, W., Berg, J. W., Segi, M., Kurihara, M., and Locke, F. B., 1973, Large bowel cancer in Hawaiian Japanese, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51: 1765–1779.Google Scholar
  66. Haenszel, W., Locke, F. B., and Segi, M., 1980, A case—control study of large bowel cancer in Japan, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 64: 17–22.Google Scholar
  67. Hakama, M., and Saxén, E. A., 1967, Cereal consumption and gastric cancer, Int. J. Cancer 2: 265–268.Google Scholar
  68. Hems, G., 1978, The contribution of diet and child bearing to breast-cancer rates, Br. J. Cancer 37: 974–982.Google Scholar
  69. Hems, G., 1980, Associations between breast-cancer mortality rates, child-bearing and diet in the United Kingdom, Br. J. Cancer 41: 429–437.Google Scholar
  70. Hems, G., and Stuart, A., 1975, Breast cancer rates in populations of single women, Br. J. Cancer 31: 118–123.Google Scholar
  71. Higginson, J., 1956, Primary carcinoma of the liver in Africa, Br. J. Cancer 10: 609–622.Google Scholar
  72. Higginson, J., 1966, Etiological factors in gastro-intestinal cancer in man, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 37: 527–545.Google Scholar
  73. Higginson, J., 1982, Comments on the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Report of the National Academy of Sciences 1982, in: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer: A critique, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Special Pub. No. 13, pp. 37–39.Google Scholar
  74. Higginson, J., and Muir, C. S., 1979, Environmental carcinogenesis: Misconceptions and limitations to cancer control, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63: 1291–1298.Google Scholar
  75. Higginson, J., and Oettlé, A. G., 1960, Cancer incidence in the Bantu and “Cape Colored” races of South Africa: Report of a cancer survey in the Transvaal (1953–55), J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 24: 589–671.Google Scholar
  76. Hill, M. J., 1985, Mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis (J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 149–163.Google Scholar
  77. Hill, P., Wynder, E. L., Helman, P., Hickman, R., Rona, G., and Kuno, K., 1976, Plasma hormone levels in different ethnic populations of women, Cancer Res. 36: 2297–2301.Google Scholar
  78. Hirayama, T., 1977, Changing patterns of cancer in Japan with special reference to the decrease in stomach cancer mortality, in: Origins of Human Cancer, Book A: Incidence of Cancer in Humans ( H. H. Hiatt, J. D. Watson, and J. A. Winsten, eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp. 55–75.Google Scholar
  79. Hirayama, T., 1978, Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet, Prey. Med. 7: 173–195.Google Scholar
  80. Hirayama, T., 1979, Epidemiology of prostate cancer with special reference to the role of diet, Nat. Cancer Inst. Mono. 53: 149–155.Google Scholar
  81. Hirayama, T., 1981, A large-scale cohort study on the relationship between diet and selected cancers of the digestive organs, in: Gastrointestinal Cancer, Endogenous Factors, Banbury Report 7 ( W. R. Bruce, P. Correa, M. Lipkin, S. R. Tannenbaum, and T. D. Wilkins, eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp. 409–429.Google Scholar
  82. Hirayama, T., 1982, Epidemiology of human carcinogenesis: A review of food-related diseases, in: Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment, Volume 1 ( H. F. Stich, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 13–30.Google Scholar
  83. Hirayama, T., 1985, Diet and cancer: Feasibility and importance of prospective cohort study, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis (J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 191–198.Google Scholar
  84. Hoehn, S. and Carroll, K. K., 1979, Effects of dietary carbohydrate on the incidence of mammary tumors induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, Nutr. Cancer 1: 27–30.Google Scholar
  85. Hopkins, G. J., and Carroll, K. K., 1979, Relationship between amount and type of dietary fat in promotion of mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62: 1009–1012.Google Scholar
  86. Horie, A., Kohchi, S., and Kuratsune, M., 1965, Carcinogenesis in the esophagus. II. Experimental production of esophageal cancer by administration of ethanolic solution of carcinogens, Gann 56: 429–441.Google Scholar
  87. Howell, M. A., 1974, Factor analysis of international cancer mortality data and per capita food consumption, Br. J. Cancer 29: 328–336.Google Scholar
  88. Howell, M. A., 1975, Diet as an etiological factor in the development of cancers of the colon and rectum, J. Chronic Dis. 28: 67–80.Google Scholar
  89. Huttunen, J. K., 1986, Vitamins, trace elements and cancer, Nutr. Cancer 8: 19–22.Google Scholar
  90. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Intestinal Microecology Group, 1977, Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations, Lancet 2: 207–211.Google Scholar
  91. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 1985, Annual Report,Lyon.Google Scholar
  92. Ishii, K., Nakamura, K., Ozaki, H., Yamada, N., and Takeuchi, T., 1968, Epidemiological problems of pancreas cancer [In Japanese], Jpn. J. Clin. Med. 26: 1839–1842.Google Scholar
  93. Jacobs, L. R., and Lupton, J. R., 1986, Relationship between colonic luminal pH, cell proliferation, and colon carcinogenesis in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed high fiber diets, Cancer Res. 46: 1727–1734.Google Scholar
  94. Jain, M., Cook, G. M., Grace, F. G., Howe, M. G., and Miller, A. B., 1980, A case-control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer, Int. J. Cancer 26: 757–768.Google Scholar
  95. Jensen, O. M., 1985, The role of diet in colorectal cancer, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis ( J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 137–147.Google Scholar
  96. Jensen, O. M., 1986, Coffee and cancer, in: Genetic Toxicology of the Diet, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 287–297.Google Scholar
  97. Jensen, O. M., Mosbech, J., Salaspuro, M., and Jhamäki, T., 1974, A comparative study of the diagnostic basis for cancer of the colon and cancer of the rectum in Denmark and Finland, Int. J. Epidemiol. 3: 183–186.Google Scholar
  98. Jensen, O. M., MacLennan, R., and Wahrendorf, J., 1982, Diet, bowel function, fecal characteristics, and large bowel cancer in Denmark and Finland, Nutr. Cancer 4: 5–19.Google Scholar
  99. Joossens, J. V., 1986, Salt and cancer, Nutr. Cancer 8: 29–32.Google Scholar
  100. Joossens, J. V., Hill, M. J., and Geboers, J. (eds.), 1985, Diet and Human Carcinogenesis, Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Symposium of the European Organization for Cooperation in Cancer Prevention Studies (ECP), Aarhus, Denmark, June 19–21, Excerpta Medica, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Jose, D. G., and Good, R. A., 1973, Quantitative effects of nutritional essential amino acid deficiency upon immune responses to tumors in mice, J. Exp. Med. 137: 1–9.Google Scholar
  102. Kannel, W. B., 1978, Recent findings of the Framingham Study, Resident Staff Physician 24: 56–71.Google Scholar
  103. Kinlen, L. J., 1982, Meat and fat consumption and cancer mortality: Study of strict religious orders in Britain, Lancet 1: 946–949.Google Scholar
  104. Knox, E. G., 1977, Foods and diseases, Br. J. Prey. Soc. Med. 31: 71–80.Google Scholar
  105. Kolonel, L. N., Nomura, A. M. Y., Hirohata, T., Hankin, J. H., and Hinds, M. W., 198la, Association of diet and place of birth with stomach cancer incidence in Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 2478–2485.Google Scholar
  106. Kolonel, L. N., Hankin, J. H., Lee, J., Chu, S. Y., Nomura, A. M. Y., and Hinds, M. W., 1981b, Nutrient intakes in relation to cancer incidence in Hawaii, Br. J. Cancer 44: 332–339.Google Scholar
  107. Kolonel, L. N., Nomura, A. M. Y., Hinds, M. W., Hirohata, T., Hankin, J. H., and Lee, J., 1983, Role of diet in cancer incidence in Hawaii, Cancer Res. 43 [Suppl.]: 2397–2402.Google Scholar
  108. Kritchevsky, D., 1985, Dietary fiber and cancer, Nutr. Cancer 6: 213–219.Google Scholar
  109. Kritchevsky, D., Weber, M. M., and Klurfeld, D. M., 1984, Dietary fat versus caloric content in initiation and promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats, Cancer Res. 44: 3174–3177.Google Scholar
  110. Kurihara, M., Aoki, K., and Tominaga, S. (eds.), 1984, Cancer Statistics in the World, University of Nagoya Press, Nagoya.Google Scholar
  111. Lea, A. J., 1967, Neoplasms and environmental factors, Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 41: 432–438.Google Scholar
  112. Lilienfeld, A. M., 1981, The Humean fog: Cancer and cholesterol, Am. J. Epidemiol. 114: 1–4.Google Scholar
  113. Linsell, C. A., and Peers, F. G., 1977, Aflaxtoxin and liver cell cancer, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 471–477.Google Scholar
  114. Liu, K., Stamler, J., Moss, D., Garside, D., Persky, V., and Soltero, I., 1979, Dietary cholesterol, fat, and fibre, and colon cancer mortality: An analysis of international data, Lancet 2: 782–785.Google Scholar
  115. Lowenthal, J. P., (ed.), 1983, Workshop conference on nutrition in cancer causation and prevention, Cancer Res. 43[Suppl.]:2389s-2518s.Google Scholar
  116. Lubin, J. H., Blot, W. J., Burns, P. E., Ziegler, R. G., Lees, A. W., and, Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., 1981, Dietary factors and breast cancer risk, Int. J. Cancer 28: 685–689.Google Scholar
  117. Lyon, J. L., and Sorenson, A. W., 1978, Colon cancer in a low-risk population, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: S227 - S230.Google Scholar
  118. Lyon, J. L., Gardner, J. W., West, D. W., and Mahoney, A. M., 1983, Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of diet and cancer, Cancer Res. 43 [Suppl.]: 2392s - 2396s.Google Scholar
  119. Mahboudi, E., and Sayed, G. M., 1982, Oval Cavity and Pharynx, in: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention ( D. Schottenfeld, and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr., eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 583–595.Google Scholar
  120. Malhotra, S. L., 1977, Dietary factors in a study of colon cancer from a cancer registry, with special reference to the role of saliva, milk and fermented milk products and vegetable fibre, Med. Hypotheses 3: 122–126Google Scholar
  121. Manousos, O., Day, N. E., Trichopoulos, D., Gerovassilis, F., Tzonou, A., and Polychronopoulou, A., 1983, Diet and colorectal cancer: A case—control study in Greece, Int. J. Cancer 32: 1–5.Google Scholar
  122. Marshall, J., Graham, S., Mettlin, C., Shedd, D., and Swanson, M., 1982, Diet in the epidemiology of oral cancer, Nutri. Cancer 3: 145–149.Google Scholar
  123. Marshall, J., Graham, S., Byers, T., Swanson, M., and Brasure, J., 1983, Diet and smoking in the epidemiology of cancer of the cervix, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70: 847–851.Google Scholar
  124. Martinez, I., Torres, R., Frias, Z., Colon, J. R., and Fernandez, N., 1979, Factors associated with adenocarcinomas of the large bowel in Puerto Rico, in: Advances in Medical Oncology, Research and Education, Volume 3 ( J. M. Birch, ed.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 45–52.Google Scholar
  125. Matsumoto, T., Yoshida, D., Mizusaki, S., and Okamoto, H., 1977, Mutagenic activity of amino acid pyrolyzates in salmonella typhimurium TA 98, Mutat. Res. 48: 279–286.Google Scholar
  126. Matsumoto, T., Yoshida, D., Mizusaki, S., and Okamoto, H., 1978, Mutagenicities of the pyrolyzates of peptides and proteins, Mutat. Res. 56: 281–288.Google Scholar
  127. McMichael, A. J., Jensen, O. M., Parkin, D. M., and Zaridze, D. G., 1984, Dietary and endogenous cholesterol and human cancer, Epidemiol. Rev. 6: 192–216.Google Scholar
  128. Meinsma, L., 1964, Nutrition and cancer, Voeding 25: 357–365.Google Scholar
  129. Mettlin, C., and Graham, S., 1979, Dietary risk factors in human bladder cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 255–263.Google Scholar
  130. Mettlin, C., Graham, S., and Swanson, M., 1979, Vitamin A and lung cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62: 1435–1438.Google Scholar
  131. Mettlin, C., Graham, S., Priore, R., and Swanson, M., 1980, Diet and cancer of the esophagus [Abstr.], Am. J. Epidemiol. 112: 422–423.Google Scholar
  132. Mettlin, C., Graham, S., Priore, R., Marshall, J., and Swanson, M., 1981, Diet and cancer of the esophagus, Nutr. Cancer 2: 143–147.Google Scholar
  133. Miller, A. B., Kelly, A., Choi, N. W., Matthews, V., Morgan, R. W., Munan, L., Burch, J. D., Feather, J., Howe, G. R., and Jain, M., 1978, A study of diet and breast cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 107: 499–509.Google Scholar
  134. Miller, A. B., Howe, G. R., Jain, M., Craib, K. J. P., and Harrison, L., 1983, Food items and food groups as risk factors in a case—control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer, Int. J. Cancer 32: 155–161.Google Scholar
  135. Modan, B., Lubin, F., Barell, V., Greenberg, R. A., Modan, M., and Graham, S., 1974, The role of starches in the etiology of gastric cancer, Cancer 34: 2087–2092.Google Scholar
  136. Modan, B., Barell, V., Lubin, F., Modan, M., Greenberg, R. A., and Graham, S., 1975, Low-fiber intake as an etiologic factor in cancer of the colon, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 55: 15–18.Google Scholar
  137. Mufloz, N., Wahrendorf, J., Lu, J. B., Crespi, M., Day, N. E., Thurnham, D. I., Zhang, C. Y., Zheng, H. J., Li, B., Li, W. Y., Lin, G. L., Lan, X. Z., Correa, P., Grassi, A., O’Conor, G. T., and Bosch, F. X., 1985, No effect of riboflavine, retinol, and zinc on precancerous lesions of the oesophagus: A randomized double-blind intervention study in a high-risk population of China, Lancet 2: 111–114.Google Scholar
  138. Nagao, M., Honda, M., Seino, Y., Yahagi, T., Kawachi, T., and Sugimura, T., 1977a, Mutagenicities of protein pyrolysates, Cancer Leu. 2: 335–340.Google Scholar
  139. Nagao, M., Yahagi, T., Kawachi, T., Seino, Y., Honda, M., Matsukura, N., Sugimura, T., Wakabayashi, K., Tsuji, K., and Kosuge, T., 1977b, Mutagens in foods, and especially pyrolysis products of protein, in: Progress in Genetic Toxicology ( D. Scott, B. A. Bridges, and F. H. Sobels, eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, pp. 259–264.Google Scholar
  140. National Academy of Sciences, 1980, Toward Healthful Diets, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  141. National Academy of Sciences, 1981, The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds, Part 1 of a 2-Part Study by the Committee on Nitrite and Alternative Curing Agents in Food, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  142. National Academy of Sciences, 1982, Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  143. Nomura, A., Henderson, B. E., and Lee, J., 1978, Breast cancer and diet among the Japanese in Hawaii, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 2020–2025.Google Scholar
  144. Palmer, S., 1983, Diet, nutrition, and cancer: The future of dietary policy, Cancer Res. 43 [Suppl.]: 2509s - 2514s.Google Scholar
  145. Pariza, M. W., 1984, A perspective on diet, nutrition, and cancer, J.A.M.A. 251: 1455–1458.Google Scholar
  146. Pernu, J., 1960, An epidemiological study on cancer of the digestive organs and respiratory system: A study based on 7078 cases, Ann. Med. Intern. Fenn. 33 [Suppl.]: 1–137.Google Scholar
  147. Phillips, R. L., 1975, Role of life-style and dietary habits in risk of cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists, Cancer Res. 35: 3513–3522.Google Scholar
  148. Phillips, R. L., and Snowden, D. A., 1983, Association of meat and coffee use with cancers of the large bowel, breast, and prostate among Seventh-Day Adventists: Preliminary results, Cancer Res. 43 [Suppl.]: 2403s - 2408s.Google Scholar
  149. Preussmann, R., and Eisenbrand, G., 1984, Chemical carcinogens, in: Am. Chem. Soc. Monograph No. 182, Washington, DC, pp. 829–868.Google Scholar
  150. Reddy, B. S., Watanabe, K., Weisburger, J. H., and Wynder, E. L., 1977, Promoting effect of bile acids in colon carcinogenesis in germfree and conventional F344 rats, Cancer Res. 37: 3238–3242.Google Scholar
  151. Reddy, B. S., Hedges, A. R., Laakso, K., and Wynder, E. L., 1978, Metabolic epidemiology of large bowel cancer: Fecal bulk and constitutents of high-risk North American and low-risk Finnish populations, Cancer 42: 2831–2838.Google Scholar
  152. Reed, P. I., 1985, The role of N-nitroso compounds in gastric cancer, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis (J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 97–107.Google Scholar
  153. Ross, M. H., and Bras, G., 1965, Tumor incidence patterns and nutrition in the rat, J. Nutr. 87: 245–260.Google Scholar
  154. Ross, M. H., and Bras, G., 1973, Influence of protein under-and ovemutrition on spontaneous tumor prevalence in the rat, J. Nutr. 103: 944–963.Google Scholar
  155. Ross, M. H., Bras, G., and Ragbeer, M. S., 1970, Influence of protein and caloric intake upon spontaneous tumor incidence of the anterior pituitary gland of the rat, J. Nutr. 100: 177–189.Google Scholar
  156. Rotkin, I. D., 1977, Studies in the epidemiology of prostatic cancer: Expanded sampling, Cancer Treat. Rep. 61: 173–180.Google Scholar
  157. Salonen, J. T., Alfthan, G., Huttunen, J. K., and Puska, P., 1984, Association between serum selenium and risk of cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 120: 342–349.Google Scholar
  158. Salonen, J. T., Salonen, R., Lappeteläinen, R., Mäenpää, P. H., Alfthan, G., and Puska, P., 1985, Risk of cancer in relation to serum concentrations of selenium and vitamins A and E: Matched case-control analysis of prospective data, Br. Med. J. 290: 417–420.Google Scholar
  159. Schrauzer, G. N., 1976, Cancer mortality correlation studies. II. Regional association of mortalities with the consumption of foods and other commodities, Med. Hypotheses 2: 39–49.Google Scholar
  160. Schuman, L. M., Mandell, J. S., Radke, A., Seal, U., and Halberg, F., 1982, Some selected features of the epidemiology of prostatic cancer: Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minnesota case—control study, 1976–1979, in: Trends in Cancer Incidence: Causes and Practical Implications ( K. Magnus, ed.), Hemisphere, New York, pp. 345–454.Google Scholar
  161. Shamberger, R. J., Tytko, S. A., and Willis, C. E., 1976, Antioxidants and Cancer, VI, Selenium and age-adjusted human cancer mortality, Arch. Environ. Health 31: 231–235.Google Scholar
  162. Silverstone, H., and Tannenbaum, A., 1951, Proportion of dietary protein and the formation of spontaneous hepatomas in the mouse, Cancer Res. 11: 442–446.Google Scholar
  163. Stewart, H. L., 1966, Site variation of alimentary tract cancer in man and experimental animals as indicators of disease etiology, in: Proceedings of the International Cancer Congress, Tokyo, Vol. 9, 15–49.Google Scholar
  164. Stocks, P., 1970, Breast cancer anomalies, Br. J. Cancer 24: 633–643.Google Scholar
  165. Sugimura, T., Kawachi, T., Nagao, M., Yahagi, T., Seino, Y., Okamoto, T., Shudo, K., Kosuge, T., Tsuji, K., Wakabayashi, K., Iitaka, Y., and Itai, A., 1977, Mutagenic principle(s) in tryptophan and phenylalanine pyrolysis products, Proc. Jpn. Acad. 53 (1): 58–61.Google Scholar
  166. Tannenbaum, A., 1942a, The genesis and growth of tumors. II. Effects of caloric restriction per se, Cancer Res. 2: 460–467.Google Scholar
  167. Tannenbaum, A., 1942b, The genesis and growth of tumors. III. Effects of a high-fat diet, Cancer Res. 2: 468–475.Google Scholar
  168. Tannenbaum, A., 1944, The dependence of the genesis of induced skin tumors on the caloric intake during different stages of carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 4: 673–677.Google Scholar
  169. Tannenbaum, A., 1945a, The dependence of tumor formation on the degree of caloric restriction, Cancer Res. 5: 609–615.Google Scholar
  170. Tannenbaum, A., 1945b, The dependence of tumor formation on the composition of the calorie-restricted diet as well as on the degree of restriction, Cancer Res. 5: 616–625.Google Scholar
  171. Tannenbaum, A., and Silverstone, H., 1949, The genesis and growth of tumors. IV. Effects of varying the proportion of protein (casein) in the diet, Cancer Res. 9: 162–173.Google Scholar
  172. Tannenbaum, A., and Silverstone, H., 1957, Nutrition and the genesis of tumours, in: Cancer, Volume 1 ( R. W. Raven, ed.), Butterworth, London, pp. 306–334.Google Scholar
  173. Thomas, D. C., Siemiatycki, J., DeWar, R., Robins, J., Goldberg, M., and Armstrong, B. G., 1985, The problem of multiple inference in studies designed to generate hypotheses, Am. J. Epidemiol. 122: 1080–1095.Google Scholar
  174. Tuyns, A., 1978, Alcool et Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.Google Scholar
  175. Watanabe, K., Reddy, B. S., Weisburger, J. H., and Kritchevsky, D., 1979, Effect of dietary alfalfa, pectin and wheat bran on azoxymethane or methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63: 141–145.Google Scholar
  176. Wattenberg, L. W., 1979, Inhibitors of carcinogenesis, in: Carcinogens: Identification and Mechanisms of Action ( A. C. Griffin and C. R. Shaw, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 299–316.Google Scholar
  177. Wattenberg, L. W., 1985, Inhibitors of carcinogenesis and their implications for cancer prevention in humans, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis ( J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, p. 51.Google Scholar
  178. Wattenberg, L. W., 1986, Micronutrients and other microconstituents, Nutr. Cancer 8: 22–24.Google Scholar
  179. Willett, W. C., and MacMahon, B., 1984a, Diet and cancer, N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 633–638.Google Scholar
  180. Willett, W. C., and MacMahon, B., 1984b, Diet and cancer, N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 697–703.Google Scholar
  181. Willett, W. C., Polk, B. F., Morris, J. S., Stampfer, M. J., Pressel, S., Rosner, B., Taylor, J. O., Schneider, K., and Hames, C. G., 1983, Prediagnostic serum selenium and risk of cancer, Lancet 2: 130–134.Google Scholar
  182. World Health Organization, 1958, Procedures for the testing of intentional food additives to establish their safety for use. Second report of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 144: 1–19.Google Scholar
  183. Wynder, E. L., and Bross, I. J., 1961, A study of etiological factors in cancer of the esophagus, Cancer 14: 389–413.Google Scholar
  184. Wynder, E. L., and Gori, G. B., 1977, Contribution of the environment to cancer incidence: An epidemiologic exercise, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58: 825–832.Google Scholar
  185. Wynder, E. L., and Shigematsu, T., 1967, Environmental factors of cancer of the colon and rectum, Cancer 20: 1520–1561.Google Scholar
  186. Wynder, E. L., Kmet, J., Dungal, N., and Segi, M., 1963, An epidemiological investigation of gastric cancer, Cancer 16: 1461–1496.Google Scholar
  187. Wynder, E. L., Kajitani, T., Ishekawa, S., Dodo, H., and Takano, A., 1969, Environmental factors of cancer of the colon and rectum, II. Japanese epidemiological data, Cancer 23: 1210–1220.Google Scholar
  188. Xu, G., 1981, Gastric cancer in China: A review, J. Roy Soc. Med. 74: 210–211.Google Scholar
  189. Zaridze, D. G., 1983, Environmental etiology of large-bowel cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70: 389–400.Google Scholar
  190. Zaridze, D. G., Muir, C. S., and McMichael, A. J., 1985, Diet and cancer: Value of different types of epidemiological studies, in: Diet and Human Carcinogenesis ( J. V. Joossens, M. J. Hill, and J. Geboers, eds.), Excerpta Medica, New York, pp. 221–233.Google Scholar
  191. Ziegler, R. G., Morris, L. E., Blot, W. J., Potters, L. M., Hoover, R., and Fraumeni, Jr., J. F., 1981, Esophageal cancer among black men in Washington, D. C. II. Role of nutrition, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67: 1199–1206.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Higginson
    • 1
  • Michael J. Sheridan
    • 1
  1. 1.Georgetown University Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations