Motor Nerve Terminal Morphology Following Botulinum a Toxin Injection in Humans

  • Kathy Alderson


Botulinum A toxin injection into muscle is an important form of therapy for focal dystonias, including blepharospasm. The basis for the effect of botulinum toxin is paralysis of muscle by blocking neuromuscular transmission, as discussed elsewhere in this volume. The block of neuromuscular transmission produces functional muscle denervation. Muscle denervation stimulates changes in terminal motor axons and neuromuscular junctions, which can, in some types of denervation, be a repair process. This paper will discuss the morphology of motor nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions following two types of denervation, the morphology the neuromuscular junction following botulinum toxin in experimental animals, and the response of the human neuromuscular junction to injection of botulinum toxin.


Botulinum Toxin Neuromuscular Junction Botulinum Toxin Injection Motor Axon Axonal Collateral 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathy Alderson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Salt Lake City V.A. Medical CenterUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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