Use of Botulinum a Toxin in the Urethral Sphincter

  • John B. Nanninga


The initial use of botulinum A toxin in the extraocular eye muscles to correct strabismus demonstrated effectiveness in reducing or eliminating unwanted muscle activity. I In recent years, the toxin has been used to correct muscle hyperactivity in blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, torticollis, leg muscle spasticity associated with cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis, and sphincter muscle (anal or urethral) hyperactivity.2,3


Multiple Sclerosis Spinal Cord Injury Cerebral Palsy Botulinum Toxin Sphincter Muscle 
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  1. 1.
    Scott A. Botulinum toxin injection of eye muscles to correct strabismus. Tr Am Ophth Soc 1991; LXXIX: 736–770.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jankovic J, Brin MF. Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dykstra D, Sidi A. Treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia with botulinum A toxin; a double blind study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990; 71: 24–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Nanninga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicagoUSA

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