Improved Outcome after Repeated Injections of Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis and Axial Dystonia: Experience with Japanese Botulinum Toxin A
Although the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of cervical dystonia has been demonstrated1–3, significant number of patients fail to respond to this therapy. These “non-responders” show little clinical improvement from the beginning (primary failure), or become resistant to the therapy after repeated injections (secondary failure)3. The latter is ascribed to development of antibodies against the toxin, while factors underlying the primary failure are yet to be determined.
KeywordsBotulinum Toxin Single Injection Repeated Injection Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Toxin Injection
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