Contributions of the U.S. Army to Botulinum Toxin Research

  • John L. Middlebrook

Abstract

This conference on botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins has covered a wide range of scientific topics, from basic toxin characterization studies to use of the toxins in modem clinical settings. At the request of the conference organizers, I will briefly summarize the U.S. Army’s past and present programs on botulinum toxin, highlighting several of the very practical accomplishments from which this field of research has benefited. Some of this information is not highly technical or scientific in nature, but represents contributions which have gone unrecognized by many of those working in the field. I should hasten to say that the views expressed here are mine alone and should not be construed to be official positions of my Institute or the U.S. Army.

Keywords

Botulinum Toxin Clostridium Botulinum Biological Weapon Biological Warfare Aluminum Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Huxsoll DL, Patrick WC III, Parrott CD. Veterinary services in biological disasters. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1987; 190: 714–722.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsuneishi K. The germ warfare unit which disappeared: the Kwangtung Army’s 731st unit. Tokyo: Kai-mei-sha 1982; 140 (translated by SCITRAN).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roux E, Yersin A. Contribution a l’étude de la diphterie. Am Inst Pasteur 1889; 3: 273–288.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Velikanov IM. Experimental immunization of man against botulism. Klin Med 1934; 12: 1802–1806.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reames HR, Kadull PJ, Housewright RD, Wilson JB. Studies on botulinum toxoids, types A and B III. Immunization in man 1947; 55: 309–324.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duff JT, Wright GG, Klerer J, Moore DE, Bibler RH. Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum I. A simplified procedure for isolation of type A toxin. J Bacteriol 1957; 73: 42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duff JT, Klerer J, Bibler RH, Moore DE, Gottfried C, Wright GG. Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum II. Production and purification of type B toxin for toxoid. J Bacteriol 1957; 73: 597–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wright GG, Duff JT, Fiock MA, Devlin HB, Soderstrom RL. Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum V. Detoxification of purified type A and B toxins, and the antigenicity of univalent and bivalent aluminum phosphate adsorbed toxoids. J Immunol 1960; 84: 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fiock MA, Devione LF, Gearinger NF, Duff JT, Wright GG, Kadull PJ. Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum VIII. Immunological response of man to purified bivalent AB botulinum toxoid. J Immunol 1962; 88: 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fiock MA, Cardella MA, Gearinger NF. Studies on immunity to toxins of Clostridium botulinum IX. Immunological response of man to purified pentavalent ABCDE botulinum toxoid..1 Immunol 1963; 90: 697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black RE, Gum RA. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with botulinal antitoxin. Am J Med 1980; 69: 567–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis GE Jr. Approaches to the prophylaxis, immunotherapy and chemotherapy of botulism. In Lewis GE, ed. Biomedical aspects of botulism. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John L. Middlebrook
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxinology DivisionU. S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious DiseasesFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations