Serological Subtypes of Botulinal Neurotoxins

  • Domingo F. Giménez
  • Juan A. Giménez

Abstract

The taxonomy of botulinal bacteria, as responsible for synthesizing botulinal neurotoxin (BoNT), embraces three different but interrelated subjects: (1) the systematic of Clostridium botulinum and its physiologic and genetic related bacteria;1 (2) other clostridial species producing BoNT,2,3,4,5 and (3) the BoNT. This toxin has a unique pharmacological action, the blockade of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine release from the nerve terminal.6

Keywords

Neutralization Test Clostridium Botulinum Clostridial Species Clostridium Butyricum Toxin Antitoxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    L.V. Holdeman and J.B. Brooks, Variation among strains of Clostridium botulinum and related clostridia, in: “Proceedings of the First U.S. Japan Conference on Toxic Microorganism,” M. Herzberg, ed., U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C. (1970).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.W. Eklund, F.T. Poysky, J.A. Meyers and G.A. Pelroy, Interspecies conversion of Clostridium botulinum type C to Clostridium novyi type A by bacteriophage, Science. 186: 456 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.D. Hall, L.M. McCroskey, B.J. Pincomb and C.L. Hatheway, Isolation of an organism resembling Clostridium barati which produces type F botulinal toxin from an infant with botulism, J. Clin. Microbial. 21: 654 (1985).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.M. McCroskey, C.L. Hatheway, L. Fenicia, B. Pasolini and P. Aureli, Characterization of an organism that produces type E botulinal toxin but which resembles Clostridium butyricum from the feces of an infant with type E botulism, J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 201 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.C. Suen, C.L. Hatheway, A.G. Steigerwalt and D.J. Brenner, Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum toxin type G and some nontoxigenic strains previously identified as Clostridium subterminale or Clostridium hastiforme, Intern. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 375 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L.C. Sellin, Botulinum toxin and the blockade of transmitter release, Asia Pacific J. Pharmacol. 2: 203 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.F. Giménez and A.S. Ciccarelli, Variaciones antigénicas en toxins del tipo F. Ensayo de definiciones para la tipificación serológica y clasificación de Clostridium botulinum, Medicina (Bs Aires). 32: 596 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.F. Giménez and A.S. Ciccarelli, A new type of Cl. botulinum, in: “Botulism 1966, ” M. Ingram and T.A. Roberts, ed., Chapman and Hall, London (1967).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.F. Giménez and A.S. Ciccarelli, Studies on strain 84 of Clostridium botulinum, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig. 215: 212 (1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.L. Hatheway, L.M. McCroskey, G.L. Lombard and V.R. Dowell Jr., Atypical toxin variant of Clostridium botulinum type B associated with infant botulism, J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 607 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.F. Giménez and J.A. Giménez, Identificación de la cepa B 657 de Clostridium botulinum, Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 15: 51 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.F. Giménez, Clostridium botulinum subtype Ba, Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A 257: 68 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Poumeyrol, J. Billon, F. Delille, C. Haas, A. Marmonier and M. Sebald, Intoxication botulique mortelle due a une souche de Clostridium botulinum de type AB, Med. Mal. Inf. 13: 750 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Sakaguchi, S. Sakaguchi, S. Kozaki and M. Takahashi, Purification and some properties of Clostridium botulinum type AB toxin, FEMS Microbiol. Letters 33: 23 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.M. McCroskey and C.L. Hatheway, Atypical strains of Clostridium botulinum isolated from specimens in infant botulism cases, ASM Meet. (abs.). C 159: 263 (1984).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L.DS. Smith and L.V. Holdeman, “The Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria,” C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1968).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.DS. Smith and G. Hobbs, Clostridium, in: “Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology,” R.B. Buchanan and N.E. Gibbons, ed., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (1974).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.H. Lee and H. Riemann, Correlation of toxic and non-toxic strains of Clostridium botulinum by DNA composition and homology, J. Gen. Microbiol. 60: 117 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W.H. Lee and H. Riemann, The genetic relatedness of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains, J. Gen. Microbiol. 64: 85 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.S. Cummins, Cell wall composition in the classification of Gram positive anaerobes, Intern. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 20: 413 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.L. Johnson and B.S. Francis, Taxonomy of the clostridia: ribosomal ribonucleic acid homologies among the species, J. Gen. Microbiol. 88: 229 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.W. Eklund and F.T. Poysky, Interconversion of type C and D strains of Clostridium botulinum by specific bacteriophage, Appl. Microbiol. 27: 251 (1974).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.S. Gutteridge, B.M. Mackey and J.R. Norris, A pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography study of Clostridium botulinum and related organisms, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 49: 165 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.M. Solomon, R.K. Lynt, D.A. Kautter and T. Lilly, Antigenic relationship among the proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum, App!. Microbio!. 21: 295 (1971).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.C. Suen, C.L. Hatheway, A.G. Steigerwalt and DJ. Brenner, Genetic confirmation of identities of neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum implicated as agents of infant botulism, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2191 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.A. Giménez, M.A. Giménez and B.R. DasGupta, Characterization of the neurotoxin isolated from a Clostridium baratii strain implicated in infant botulism, Infect. Immun. 60: 518 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.A. Giménez and H. Sugiyama, Comparison of toxins of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium botulinum type E, Infect. Immun. 56: 926 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.A. Giménez, J. Foley and B.R. DasGupta, Neurotoxin type E from Clostridium botulinum and C. butyricum: partial sequence and comparison, FASEB J. 2: A1750 (1988).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B.R. Singh, J.A. Giménez and B.R. DasGupta, Comparative Molecular Topography of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium botulinum type E, Biochem.Biophys. Acta. 1077: 119 (1991).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Kozaki, J. Onimaru, Y. Kamata and G. Sakaguchi, Immunological characterization of Clostridium butyricum neurotoxin and its trypsin-induced fragment by use of monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin, Infect. Immun. 59: 457 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    EJ. Bowmer, Preparation and assay of the international standards for Clostridium botulinum types A, B, C, D and E antitoxins, Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 29: 701 (1963).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    AJ. Fulthorpe, Clostridium botulinum types A and B toxin-antitoxin reactions, J. Hyg. (Gond.). 53: 180 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Sugiyama, Clostridium botuliunum neurotoxin, Microbiol. Rev. 44: 419 (1980).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Sakaguchi, Clostridium botulinum toxins, Pharmac. Ther. 19: 165 (1983).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Hambleton, C.C. Shone and J. Melling, Botulinum toxin. Structure, action and clinical uses, in: “Neurotoxin and Their Pharmacological Implications,” P. Jenner, ed., Raven Press, New York (1987).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Hambleton, C.C. Shone, P. Wilton-Smith and J. Melling, A possible common antigen on clostridial toxins detected by monoclonal anti-botulinum neurotoxin antybodies, in: “Bacterial Protein Toxins,” J.E. Alouf, F.J. Fehrenbach, J.H. Freer and J. Jeljaszewic, ed., Academic Press, Inc., London (1984).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Tsuzuki, N. Yokosawa, B. Syuto, I. Ohishi, N. Fujii, K. Kimura and K. Oguma, Establishment of a monoclonal antibody recognizing an antigenic site common to Clostridium botulinum type B, Cl, D, and E toxins and tetanus toxin, Infect. Immun. 56: 898 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C.E. Dolman and L. Murakami, Clostridium botulinum type F with recent observations on other types, J. Infect. Dis. 109: 107 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T.I. Bulatova and E.V. Perova, Antigenic structure of Cl. botulinum, types E and F, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immuno. 4: 28 (1970).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J.H. Mason and E.M. Robinson, The antigenic components of the toxins of Cl. botulinum types C and D, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind. 5: 65 (1935).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.F. Giménez and A.S. Ciccarelli, Another type of Clostridium botulinum, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig. 215: 221 (1970).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A.S. Ciccarelli and D.F. Giménez, Estudio serológico de toxinas de Clostridium botulinum tipo A y cepa 84, Rev. lat-amer. Microbiol. 13: 67 (1971).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. Shimizu and H. Kondo, Immunological difference between the toxin of a proteolytic strain and that of a non-proteolytic strain of Clostridium botulinum type B, Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 26: 269 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. Rymkiewicz, J. Sawicki and A. Brühl, Study on the immunological heterogeneity of Clostridium botulinum B type toxin, Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 27: 709 (1979).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Glasby and C.L. Hatheway, Fluorescent-antibody reagents for the identification of Clostridium botulinum, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 1378 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T.I. Bulatova and K.I. Matveev, An antigenic structure of Cl. botulinum, type C strains, isolated in the USSR, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immuno. 8: 79 (1965).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Eklund, F. Poysky, K. Oguma, H. Iida and K. Inoue, Relationship of bacteriophages to toxin and hemagglutinin production by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and its significance in avian botulism outbreaks, in: “Avian Botulism: An International Perspective,” M.W. Eklund and V.R. Dowell Jr., ed., C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1987).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    B.C. Jansen, Clostridium botulinum type C, its isolation, identification and taxonomic position, in: “Avian Botulism: An International Perspective,” M.W. Eklund and V.R. Dowell Jr., ed., C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1987).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    I. Ohishi and B.R. DasGupta, Molecular structure and biological activities of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, in: “Avian Botulism: An International Perspective,” M.W. Eklund and V.R. Dowell Jr., ed., C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1987).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. Pfenninger, Toxico-immunologic and serologic relationship of B. botulinus, type C, and B. parabotulinus, “Seddon”. XXII, J. Infect. Dis. 35: 347 (1924).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.B. Gunnison and K.F. Meyer, Cultural study of an international collection of Clostridium botulinum and parabotulinum. XXXVIII, J. Infect. Dis. 45: 119 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    B.C. Jansen, The toxic antigenic factors produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D, Onderstepoort J. vet. Res. 38: 93 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    I. Ohishi, M. Iwasaki and G. Sakaguchi, Vascular permeability activity of botulinum C2 toxin elicited by cooperation of two dissimilar protein components, Infect. Immun. 31: 890 (1980).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    B.C. Jansen and P.C. Knoetze, The taxonomic position of Clostridium botulinum type C, Onderstepoort J. vet. Res. 44: 53 (1977).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Oguma, B. Syuto, T. Agui, H. Iida and S. Kubo, Homogeneity and heterogeneity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains, Infect. Immun. 34: 382 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    K. Oguma, B. Syuto, H. Iida and S. Kubo, Antigenic similarity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains, Infect. Immun. 30: 656 (1980).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    O.J. Ochanda, B. Syuto, K. Oguma, H. Iida and S. Kubo, Comparison of antigenicity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 1319 (1984).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Oguma, S. Murayama, B. Syuto, H. Iida and S. Kubo, Analysis of antigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type Cl and D toxins by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, Infect. Immun. 43: 584 (1984).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Terajima, B. Syuto, J.0. Ochanda and S. Kubo, Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813, Infect. Immun. 48: 312 (1985).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Moriishi, B. Syuto, S. Kubo and K. Oguma, Molecular diversity of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum type D strains, Infect. Immun. 57: 2886 (1989).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    W.B. Gross and L.DS. Smith, Experimental botulism in gallinaceous birds, Avian Dis. 15: 716 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. Haagsma, Laboratory investigation of botulism in wild birds, in: “Avian Botulism: An International Perspective,” M.W. Eklund and V.R. Dowell Jr., ed., C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1987).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A.R. Prévot, A. Turpin and P. Kaiser, “Les Bactéries Anaérobies,” Dunod, Paris (1967).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.H.W. Hauschild, Clostridium botulinum toxins, Intern. J. Food Microbiol. 10: 113 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    H. Sugiyama, K. Mizutani and K.H. Yang, Basis of type A and F toxicitites of Clostridium botulinum strain 84, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med. 141: 1063 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    B.R. DasGupta and A. Datta, Botulinum neurotoxin type B (strain 657): partial sequence and similarity with tetanus toxin, Biochimie 70: 811 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    B.J. Edmond, F.A. Guerra, J. Blake and S. Hempler, Case of infant botulism in Texas, Tex. Med. 73: 85 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    C.L. Hatheway and L.M. McCroskey, Examination of feces and serum for diagnosis of infant botulism in 366 patients, J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2334 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    C.L. Hatheway and L.M. McCroskey, Unusual neurotoxigenic clostridia recovered from human fecal specimens in the investigation of botulism, in: “Recent Advances in Microbial Ecology,” T. Hattori, Y. Ishida, Y. Maruyama, R.Y. Morita and A. Uchida, ed., Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo (1989).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R.A. Fernández, A.S. Ciccarelli, G.N. Arenas and D.F. Giménez, Primer brote de botulismo por Clostridium botulinum subtipo Af, Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 18: 29 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domingo F. Giménez
    • 1
  • Juan A. Giménez
    • 2
  1. 1.Calle 13, Nro 1069Pcia. Bs. As.Argentina
  2. 2.Food Research InstituteUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations