Endosome Processing: Structural, Functional and Kinetic Interrelations
Clostridial neurotoxins exert their effect from within the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Rather than gaining direct access through the cell-surface membrane, the toxin exploits the process of endocytosis to gain entry into cells. As this would still leave the toxin on the exoplasmic side of the endocytic membrane, a translocation step through the membrane into the cytoplasm must follow at some stage along the endocytic pathway. An awareness of the steps which are involved in endosome processing can be helpful to assess the mechanism by which the toxin can reach its site of action in the cell.
KeywordsEarly Endosome Late Endosome Endocytic Pathway Endocytic Vesicle Membrane Constituent
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Courtoy PJ. Dissection of endosomes. In Steer C, Hanover J, eds. Intracellular trafficking of proteins. Cambridge University Press, 1991: 103.Google Scholar
- 7.Green SA, Kelly RB. Endocytic membrane traffic to the Golgi apparatus in a regulated secretory cell line. J. Biol. Chem. 1990; 265: 2 1269.Google Scholar
- 16.Dunn WA, Hubbard AL. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor by hepatocytes in the perfused rat liver: ligand and receptor dynamics. J Cell Biol 1984; 98: 2148.Google Scholar
- 18.Griffiths G, Back R, Marsh M. A quantitative analysis of the endocytic pathway in Baby Hamster Kidney cells. J Cell Biol 1989; 109: 2703.Google Scholar
- 21.Koval M, Pagano RE. Lipid recycling between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments: Transport and metabolism of fluorescent sphingomyelin analogues in cultured fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 1989; 108: 2169.Google Scholar
- 25.van Grafenstein H, Roberts CS, Baker PF. Kinetic analysis of the triggered exocytosis/endocytosis secretory cycle in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. J Cell Biol 1986; 103: 2343.Google Scholar
- 36.Yamashiro DJ, Maxfield FR. Acidification of morphologically distinct endosomes in mutant and wild-type Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. J Cell Biol 1987; 105: 2723.Google Scholar
- 40.Blum JS, Fiani ML, Stahl PD. Proteolytic cleavage of ricin A chain in endosomal vesicles. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 2 2091.Google Scholar
- 43.Stoorvogel W, Geuze HJ, Griffith JM, Schwartz AL, Strous GJ. Relations between the intracellular pathways of the receptors for transferrin, asialoglycoprotein, and mannose 6-phosphate in human hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol 1989; 108: 2137.Google Scholar
- 47.Jin M, Sahagian GG, Snider MD. Transport of surface mannose 6-phosphate receptor to the Golgi complex in cultured human cells. J Biol Chem 1989; 263: 7675.Google Scholar
- 54.Mullock BM, Branch WJ, van Schaik M, Gilbert LK, Luzio JP. Reconstitution of an endosomelysosome interaction in a cell-free system. J Cell Biol 1989; 108: 2093.Google Scholar
- 56.Salzman NH, Maxfield FR. Fusion accessibility of endocytic compartments along the recycling and lysosomal endocytic pathways in intact cells. J Cell Biol 1989; 109: 2097.Google Scholar