Management Practices Leading to High Work Unit Performance

  • K. N. Gaertner
  • S. D. Nollen


Assuring high work unit performance has always been an important organizational task, especially during times of scarce resources and economic uncertainty. One potential source of high performance is the management practices in the work unit. Sometimes called “climate” (Litwin and Stringer, 1968), these factors include the work unit’s formal and informal systems, its ways of solving problems and making decisions, its management “style”, and its goals and values.


Work Unit Organizational Climate Employee Relation Sales Performance Prior Performance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blumberg, M. and Pringle, CD. (1982) “The Missing Opportunity in Organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of Work Performance,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7:, No. 4: 560–569.Google Scholar
  2. Brockner, J. and Greenberg, J. (1990) “The Impact of Layoffs on Survivors: An Organizational Justice Perspective,” in J.S. Carroll (Ed.), Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 45–75.Google Scholar
  3. Denison, D.R. (1984) “Bringing Corporate Culture to the Bottom Line” Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 13 (Autumn): 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Forehand, G. and Gilmer, B. (1964) “Environmental Variation in Studies of Organizational Behavior.” Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 62:361–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. George, J.M. and Bettenhausen, K. (1990) “Understanding Prosocial Behavior, Sales Performance, and Turnover: A Group-Level Analysis in a Service Context” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 75 (No.6): 698–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gladstein, D.L. (1984) “Groups in Context: A Model of Task Group Effectiveness.” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 29 (No. 4): 499–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hansen, G. S. and Wernerfeit, B. (1989) “Determinants of Firm Performance: The Relative Importance of Economic and Organizational Factors” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10, No. 5 (September–October): 399–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jones, A.P. and James, L.R. (1979) “Psychological Climate: Dimensions and Relationships of Individual and Aggregated Work Environment Perception.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 23:201–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lawler, E.E. III, Hall, D.T. and Oldham, G.R. (1974) “Organizational Climate: Relationship to Organizational Structure, Process, and Performance.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 11:139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Litwin, G.H. and Stringer, R.A., Jr. (1968) Motivation and Organizational Climate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Podsakoff, P.M. and Todor, W.D. (1985) “Relationships Between Leader Reward and Punishment Behavior and Group Processes and Productivity.” Journal of Management, Vol 11, No. 1:55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pritchard, R.D. and Karasick, B.W. (1973) “The Effects of Organizational Climate on Managerial Job Performance and Job Satisfaction.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 9: 126–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schneider, B. (1983) “Work Climates: An Interactionist Perspective,” in N.R. Feimer and E.S. Geller (Eds.) Environmental Psychology: Directions and Perspectives. New York: Praeger, pp. 106–128.Google Scholar
  14. Staw, B.M. (1975) “Attribution of the ‘Causes’ of Performance: A General Alternative Interpretation of Cross-sectional Research on Organizations.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 13:414–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tyler, T.R. and Bies, R.J. (1990) “Beyond Formal Procedures: The Interpersonal Context of Procedural Justice,” in J.S. Carroll (Ed.), Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 77–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. N. Gaertner
    • 1
  • S. D. Nollen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Business AdministrationGeorgetown UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations