P Blood Group and Related Antigens

  • Pascal Bailly
  • Jean-François Bouhours
Part of the Blood Cell Biochemistry book series (BLBI, volume 6)


The human P blood group system was discovered by Landsteiner and Levine (1927) when these investigators found a new antigen present on the erythrocytes of about 80% of individuals, who were typed P(+), and absent on others, who were typed P(−). The system was defined by one antibody, anti-P, and one antigen, P. Then, Levine et al. (1951,1954) discovered a new antibody recognizing an antigen, termed Tja, present on erythrocytes of everyone but very rare individuals. By 1955, 15 people in the world, members of 9 families, were known to lack Tja on their red blood cells and contain anti-Tja in their serum. Sanger (1955) found that six out of six Tj(a-) individuals were P-negative, a proportion very improbable to occur by chance. Furthermore, anti-Tja sera were able to agglutinate P-negative as well as P-positive red cells, indicating that P-negative cells share a common antigen with P-positive cells. The P blood group system was redefined in order to include these new findings: original common P(+) and P(−) phenotypes became P1 and P2, respectively, and the new rare phenotype, previously called Tja−, was termed “little p.” A new antigen, common to P1 and P2 and lacking in p individuals, was termed P. The anti-Tja antisera were found to contain anti-P1 and anti-P antibodies.


Blood Group Carbohydrate Chain Blood Group Antigen Relate Antigen Human Erythrocyte Membrane 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pascal Bailly
    • 1
  • Jean-François Bouhours
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut National de la Transfusion SanguineUnité de Recherche U76 de l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)Paris Cedex 15France
  2. 2.Institut de Transplantation et de Recherche en Transplantation, Centre Hospitalier RégionalUnité de Recherche de l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)Nantes CedexFrance

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