Modulation of the Electron Transport System of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

  • Giorgio Forti
  • Giovanni Finazzi
Part of the Electronics and Biotechnology Advanced (EL.B.A.) Forum Series book series (ELBA, volume 3)


Oxygenic photosynthesis of green plants and cyanobacteria is a redox reaction, which converts the energy of electromagnetic radiation (in the visible region of solar spectrum) into chemical bond energy, utilizing water as an electron donor, and CO2 as the acceptor to generate carbohydrates and other organic substances, according to the overall equation:
$${{\text{H}}_2}{\text{O + C}}{{\text{O}}_2} + {\text{light}} \to {\text{1/6}}\;{{\text{C}}_6}{{\text{H}}_{12}}{{\text{O}}_6} + {{\text{O}}_2}$$


Electron Transport Photosynthetic Electron Transport Electron Transport System Oxygenic Photosynthesis Cyclic Electron Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, J.F., 1992, Protein phosphorylation in regulation of photosynthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1098: 275–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arson, D.I., 1977, Photosynthesis 1950–73: changing concepts and perspectives, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology“ New ser. Trebst A. and Avron M. Eds. Vol.5 pp: 7–56.Google Scholar
  3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Bendall, D., 1982, Photosynthetic cytochromes of oxygenic organisms. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 683: 119–151.Google Scholar
  4. Boekema, E.J., Schmidt, G. and Graber, P., 1988, Structure of the ATP-synthase from chloroplaste and mitochondria studied by electron microscopy, Z. Naturforsch., 430: 219–225.Google Scholar
  5. Bonaventura C. and Myers J., 1969, Fluorescence and oxygen evolution from Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 189: 366–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Canaani, O., and Malkin, S., 1984, Distribution of light excitation in an intact leaf between the two photosystems of photosynthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 766: 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cramer, W.A., and Knaff, D.B., 1989, Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes. Springer-Verlag New York.Google Scholar
  8. Cramer, W.A., Soriano, G.M., Ponomarev, M., Huang, D., Zang, H., Martinez, S.E. and Smith, J.L., 1996, Some new structural aspects and old controversies concerning the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 47: 477–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crofts, A.R., Meinhardt, S.W., Jones, K.R., and Snozzi, M., 1983, the role of the quinone pool in the cyclic electron-transfer chain of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. A modified Q-cycle mechanism, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 723: 202–218.Google Scholar
  10. Crofts, A.R., and Yerkes, E.T., 1994, A molecular mechanism for qE-quenching. FEBS Letters, 352: 265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Debus, R.J., 1992, The manganese and calcium ions of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1102: 269–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Degli Esposti, M., De Vries, S., Crimi, M., Ghelli, A., Paternello, T., and Meyer, A., 1993, Mitochondrial cytochrome b: evolution and structure of the protein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1143: 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demmig-Adams, B., 1990, Carotenoids and photoprotection in plants: a role for the xantophyll zeaxantin, Biochim. Biophys Acta, 1020: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demmig-Adams, B., 1991, Zeaxanthin-associated energy dissipation and the susceptibility of various organisms to light stress, in Current Research in Photosynthesis, Baltscheffsky, M. ed, vol. II, pp 357–364. Kluwer Acad. Publ. The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  15. Duysens, L.N.M., Amesz, J., and Kamp, B.M., 1961, Two photochemical system in photosynthesis, Nature, 190: 510–511.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Emerson, R., and Arnold, W., 1932, Separation of the reactions in photosynthesis by means of intermittent light, J. Gen. Physiol., 15: 391–420.Google Scholar
  17. Emerson, R., 1957, Dependence of yield of photosynthesis in long-wave red on wavelength and intensity of supplementary light, Science, 125: 746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Finazzi, G., Ehrenheim, A.M., and Forti, G., 1992, Influence of different uncouplers on photosystem II photochemistry and fluorescence, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1142: 123–128.Google Scholar
  19. Finazzi, G., Bianchi, R., Vianelli, A., Ehremheim, A.M., and Forti, G., 1995, Inhibition of photosystem 2 primary photochemistry by photogenerated protons, Photosynth. Res., 46: 379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Finazzi, G:, Büschlen, S., de Vitry, C., Rappaport, F., Joliot, P., and Wolmann, F.-A., 1997, Function-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome brf complex in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: involvement of the cd loop of cytochrome b6 in quinol binding at the Qo site, Biochemistry, 36: 2867–2874Google Scholar
  21. Forti, G., and Jagendorf, A.T., 1961, Photosynthetic phosphorylation in the absence of redox dies: oxygen and ascorbate effects, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 54: 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forti, G., and Parisi, B., 1963, Evidence for the occurrence of cyclic photophosphorylation in vivo, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 71: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forti, G., and Grubas, P.M.G., 1985, Two sites of interaction of ferredoxin with thylakoids, FEBS Letters, 186: 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forti, G., and Fusi, P., 1990, Influence of thylakoids protein phosphorylation on Emerson enhancement and the quantum requirement of photosystem I, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1020: 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forti, G., and Ehrenheim, A.M., 1993, The role of ascorbic acid in photosynthetic electron transport, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1183 408–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forti, G., and Elli, G., 1995, The function of ascorbic acid in photosynthetic phosphorylation, Plant Physiol, 109: 1207–1211.Google Scholar
  27. Förster, T., 1960, Transfer mechanism of electronic excitation energy, Radiat. Res. Suppl., 2: 326–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foust, G.P., Mayhew, S.G., and Massey, V., 1969, Complex formation between ferredoxin triphosphopyridine nucleotide reductase and electron transfer proteins, J. Biol. Chem., 244: 964–970.Google Scholar
  29. Fromme, P., and Graber, P., 1990, Activation/inactivation and uni-site catalysis by the reconstituted ATPsynthase from chloroplasts, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1016: 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garlaschi, F.M., Zucchelli, G., and Jennings, R.C., 1989, Studies on light absorption and photochemical activity changes in chloroplast suspensions and leaves due to light scattering and light filtration across chloroplast and vegetation layers, Photosynth. Res., 20: 207–220.Google Scholar
  31. Genty, B., Briantais, J.M., and Baker, N.R., 1989, The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 990: 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Genty, B., Harbison, J., Briantais, J.M., and Baker, N., 1990, The relationship between non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and the rate of photosystem 2 photochemistry in leaves, Photosynt. Res., 25: 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldbeck, J.H., and Bryant, D.A., 1991, Photosystem I, In: Current Topic in Bioenergetics, Lee C.P. ed., Vol. 16 pp 83–179 Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Govindjee, R., and Hoch, G., 1964, Emerson enhancement effect in chloroplast reactions, Plant Physiol, 39: 10–14.Google Scholar
  35. Hauska, G., Hurt, E., Gibellini, N., and Lockau, W., 1983, Comparative aspects of quinol-cytochrome c/plastocyanin oxidoreductases, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 726: 97–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haenel, W., Pröpper, H., and Krause, H., 1980, Evidence for complexed plastocyanin as the intermediate electron donor to P-700, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 593: 384–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hill, R., and Bendall, F., 1960, unction of the two cytochrome components in chloroplasts: a working hypothesis, Nature, 186: 136–137.Google Scholar
  38. Hipkins, M.F., and Baker, N.R., 1991, Photosynthesis energy transduction - a practical approach. I. R.L. Press, Oxford. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  39. Horton, P., Ruban, A.V., and Walters, R.G., 1996, Regulation of light harvesting in green plants, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 47: 655–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hope, A.B., 1993, The chloroplast cytochrome bf complex: a critical focus on function. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1143: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hope, A.B., Matthews, D.B., and Valente, P., 1994, Effects of pH on the kinetics of redox reactions in and the cytochrome b 6 f complex in an isolated system Photosynth. Res., 40: 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hurt, E.C., and Hauska, G., 1981, A cytochrome f/b 6 of five polypeptides with plastoquinol-plastocyanin-oxidoreducates activity from spinach chloroplasts Eur. J. Biochemistry, 117: 591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jansson, S., 1994, The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1184: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jennings, R.C., and Zucchelli, G., 1986, Studies on thylakoid phosphorylation and noncyclic electron transport, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 246: 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jennings, R.C., Bassi, R., and Zucchelli, G., 1996, Antenna structure and energy transfer in higher plant photosystems, Topics Curr. Cheng., 177: 147–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joliot, P., and Joliot, A., 1964, Etude cinetique de la réaction photochimique libérant l’oxygène au cours de la photosynthèse. C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 258: 4622–4625.Google Scholar
  47. Joliot, P., and Delosme, R., 1974, Flash-induced 519 nm absorption change in green algae, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 357: 267–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Joliot, P., Lavergne, J., and Béal, D., 1992, Plastoquinone compartmentation in chloroplasts. I. Evidence for domains with different rates of photo-reduction, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1101: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Joliot, P., and Joliot, A., 1994, Mechanism of electron transfer in the cytochrome bet complex of algae: evidence for a semiquinone cycle, PNAS, USA, 91: 1034–1041.Google Scholar
  50. Junesch, U., and Graber, P., 1985, The rate of ATP synthesis as a function of ApH in normal and dithiothreitol-modified chloroplasts, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 809: 429–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kitajima, M., and Butler, W.L., 1975, Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and primary photochemistry in chloroplasts by dibromothymoquinone, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 399: 72–85.Google Scholar
  52. Klimov, V.V., Ke, B. and Dolan, E., 1980, Effect of photoreduction of the photosystem II intermediary electron acceptor (pheophytin) on triplet state of carotenoids, FEBS Letters, 118: 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kok, B., Forbush, B., and Mc Gloin, M, 1970, Cooperation of charges in photosynthetic O2 evolution. I. A linear four step mechanism. Photochem. Photobiol., 11:457–475.Google Scholar
  54. Krause, G.H., Vernotte, C., and Briantais, J.M., 1982, Photoinduced quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact chloroplasts and algae, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 679: 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lavergne, J., Bouchaud, J.-P., and Joilot, P., 1992, Plastoquinone compartmentation in chloroplasts. II. Theoretical aspects, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1101: 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lavergne, J., and Briantais, J.-M., 1996, Photosystem II heterogeneity,In: Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Thelight reaction,Ort, D.R., Yocum C.F. pp: 412–425, Kluwer AcademicGoogle Scholar
  57. Publisher, Dordrecht. Malkin, S., and Kok, B., 1966, Fluorescence induction studies in isolated chloroplasts. I. Number of components involved in the reaction and quantum yield, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 126: 413–432.Google Scholar
  58. Mitchell, P., 1975, The protonmotive Q cycle: a general formulation, FEBS Letters, 59: 137–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mitchell, P., 1977, A commentary on alternative hypotheses of protonic coupling in the membrane systems catalysing oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation. FEBS Letters, 78: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murata, N., Nishimura, M., Takamiya, A., 1966, Fluorescence of chlorophyll in photosyntetic systems. II. Induction of fluorescence in isolated spinach chloroplasts, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 126: 23–33.Google Scholar
  61. Miyake, C., and Asada, K., 1992, Thylakoid bound ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts and photoreduction of its primary oxidation product monodehydroascorbate radicals in thylakoids, Plant Cell Physiol, 33: 541–553.Google Scholar
  62. Myers, J., and French, C.S., 1960, Evidence from action spectra for a specific participation of chlorophyll b in photosynthesis, J. Gen. Physiol., 43: 723–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Myers, J., 1987, is there a significant cyclic electron flow around photosysntem 1 in cyanobacteria?, Photosynth. Res., 14: 55–69.Google Scholar
  64. Ort, D.R., and Oxborough, K., 1992, In situ regulation of chloroplast coupling factor activity, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 43: 269–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Phillip, D., Ruban, A.V., Horton, P., Asato, Y., and Young, A.J., 1996, Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in the major light harvesting complex of photosystem II: a systematic study of the effect of carotenoids structure, PNAS, USA, 93: 1492–1497Google Scholar
  66. Renger, G., 1993, water cleavage by solar radiation. An inspiring challenge of photosynthesis research, Photosyntht. Res., 38: 229–247.Google Scholar
  67. Rich, P.R., 1984, Electron and proton transfers through quinones and cytochrome be complexes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 768: 53–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rumberg, B., and Siggel, U., 1969, pH changes in the inner phase of the thylakoids during photosynthesis, Naturwiss, 3: 130–132.Google Scholar
  69. Schatz, G.H., Brock, H., and Holzwarth, A.R., 1988, Kinetics and energetic model for the primary processes in photosystem II, Biophys. J., 54: 397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schonknecht, G., Hedrich, R., Junge, W., and Raschke, K., 1988, A voltage-dependent chloride channel in the photosynthetic membrane of a higher plant, Nature, 336: 589–592.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shuvalov, V.A., Nuijs, A.M., van Gorkom, H.J., Smit, H.,W.J., and Duysens, L.N.M., 1986, Picoseconds absorbance changes upon selective excitatin of the primary electron donor P-700 in photosystem I, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 850: 319–323.Google Scholar
  72. Tanner, W., and Kandler, 0., 1969, The lack of relationship between cyclic photophosphorylation and photosynthetic CO2-fixation, In: Progress in Photosynthesys Research, H. Metzner ed., vol. 3 pp 1217–1223 Laupp, Tubingen.Google Scholar
  73. Thornber, J.P., Peter, G.F., and Nechustai, R., 1987, Biochemical composition and structure of photosynthetic pigment proteins from higher plants, Physiol. Plant., 71: 236–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Witt, H.T., 1979, Energy conversion in the functional membrane of photosynthesis. Analysis by light pulse and electric pulse methods. The central role of the electric field., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 505: 355–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Witt, H.T., 1990, Functional mechanism in reaction center II based on analysis of 7 time resolved difference spectra and hydroxylamine “titration”, In Current Research in Photosynthesis, M. Baltscheffsky ed., vol. I, pp 837–840. Kluwer Acad. Publ., The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  76. Witt, H.T., 1996, Primary reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 100: 19231942.Google Scholar
  77. Wright, C.A., and Crofts, A.R., 1970, Energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll alpha fluorescence in isolated chloroplasts, Eur. J. Biochem., 17: 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Forti
    • 1
  • Giovanni Finazzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia dell’Università di MilanoCentro di Studio CNR sulla Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare delle PianteMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations