Role of Gangliosides in Transmembrane Signaling and Cell Recognition
Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (GSLs), collectively called “gan-gliosides,” were discovered in the mid-1930s by Ernst Klenk (Cologne, Germany) (Klenk, 1942) and Gunnar Blix (Uppsala, Sweden), (Blix, 1936) (see Chapter 1). Since then, steadily increasing numbers of scientists have worked on isolation and characterization of gangliosides, determination of different molecular species, and their distribution in animal cells and tissues. Development of new separation technology (e.g., thin-layer and gas chromatography) and instrumental analysis (e.g., mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy), together with introduction of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) approach in immunochemistry, allowed identification of many previously unknown ganglioside species (especially those having complex lacto- or globo-series backbone structure) in the 1970s and 1980s.
KeywordsEpidermal Growth Factor Receptor A431 Cell Integrin Receptor PDGF Receptor Transmembrane Signaling
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