Sialic Acid in Biochemical Pathology

  • Kunihiko Suzuki

Abstract

Free sialic acid constitutes a relatively small proportion of the total tissue sialic acid pool. The bulk of sialic acid in the body exists in sialoglycoconjugate form bound to either glycoproteins or glycolipids. Many proteins are glycosylated by complex carbohydrate chains terminated by a sialic acid residue (see Chapter 5). Glycosphingolipids are group of complex lipids that contain a long-chain base, sphingosine, as the basic building block (see Chapter 6). In almost all naturally occurring sphingolipids, sphingosine is acylated by a long-chain fatty acid, forming N-acylsphingosine, or ceramide. A complex hydrophilic side chain, consisting of carbohydrate, sialic acid, and other constituents, is attached to the terminal hydroxyl group of sphingosine. Glycoproteins and glycolipids are characteristic integral constituents of the plasma membrane in vertebrates. Their composition varies in different cell types and in different developmental stages. The compositional pattern can be further altered by viral transformation and oncogenesis. No genetic pathological condition related to abnormality in either synthesis or degradation of sialic acid itself is known. However, a series of genetic disorders do exist with the underlying abnormalities affecting either transport of sialic acid across the lysosomal membrane or intralysosomal degradation of sialic acid-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids. The latter category includes disorders in which removal of sialic acid is specifically impaired, and those in which presence of sialic acid in the affected compounds is incidental. The scope of this chapter will be limited to genetically defined conditions in which alterations of sialic acid or sialic acid-containing compounds occur. Other aspects such as differentiation, infections, and oncogenesis are covered elsewhere in this volume. Table I lists the disorders that are included as the subjects of this chapter. For further detailed information on the biochemical aspects of these genetic disorders, the reader is referred to the recently published reference volume edited by Scriver et al. (1995).

Keywords

Sialic Acid Infantile Form Sandhoff Disease Free Sialic Acid Infantile Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunihiko Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Brain and Development Research Center, Departments of Neurology and PsychiatryUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

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