Alcohol Use in Tribal Societies

  • Margaret K. Bacon

Abstract

The drinking of alcoholic beverages is both ancient in origin and widespread throughout the peoples of the world. Forbes (1954) reports that wine was in use in Mesopotamia some time prior to 3000 B.C. The oldest known code of laws, that of Hammurabi of Babylonia (c. 1700 B.c.), regulated the sale of wine and forbade riotous assembly in the house of the wine seller. The medicinal use of alcohol dates back some four thousand years. A clay tablet found at Nippur, dated about 2100 B.c., records in Sumerian cuneiform directions for making various remedies; beer was the usual solvent (Keller, 1958). The ancient Egyptians have depicted their alcoholic excesses in Theban wall paintings in which women are shown as drunk to the point of nausea. Drinking practices in ancient Greece and Rome and among other peoples of antiquity have been documented in detail (McKinlay, 1948a, 1948b, 1949a, 1949b, 1951).

Keywords

Alcoholic Beverage Drinking Behavior Crosscultural Study Drinking Pattern Subsistence Economy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bacon, M. K., 1974, The dependency-conflict hypothesis and the frequency of drunkenness: Further evidence from a cross-cultural study, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 35: 863.Google Scholar
  2. Bacon, M. K., Barry, H. III, and Child, I. L., 1965a, A cross-cultural study of drinking: II. Relations to other features of culture. Quart. J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 3: 29.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, M. K., Barry, H. III, Child, I. L., and Snyder, C., 1965b, A cross-cultural study of drinking: V. Detailed definitions and data, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 3: 78.Google Scholar
  4. Bacon, S. D., 1944, “Sociology and the Problems of Alcohol: Foundations for a Sociological Study of Drinking Behavior,” Hillhouse Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  5. Bacon, S. D., 1967, The Classic Temperance Movement of the U.S.A.: impact today on attitudes, action and research, Brit. J. Addict. 62: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, M., 1961, Alcoholism and marriage; a review of research and professional literature, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 22: 81.Google Scholar
  7. Bales, R. F., 1946, Cultural differences in rates of alcoholism, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 6: 480.Google Scholar
  8. Bales, R. F., 1962, Attitudes toward drinking in the Irish culture, in “Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns” (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 157–187, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Barnett, M. L., 1955, Alcoholism in the Cantonese of New York City: An anthropological survey, in “Etiology of Chronic Alcoholism” (O. Diethelm, ed.), pp. 179–227, Thomas, Springfield, I II.Google Scholar
  10. Barry, H. III, 1974, Psychological factors in alcoholism, in “The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology” (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 53–107, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Barry, H. III, and Miller, N. E., 1962, Effects of drugs on approach-avoidance conflict tested repeatedly by means of a “telescope alley,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 55: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barry, H. III, Bacon, M. K., and Child, I. L., 1957, A cross-cultural survey of some sex differences in socialization, J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 55: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barry, H. III, Child, I. L., and Bacon, M. K., 1959, Relation of child training to subsistence economy. Amer. Anthrop. 61: 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barry, H. III, Buchwald, C., Child, I. L., and Bacon, M. K., 1965, A cross-cultural study of drinking: IV comparisons with Horton ratings, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 3: 62.Google Scholar
  15. Batchelor, J., 1892, “The Ainu of Japan,” Revell, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Berreman, G. D., 1956, Drinking patterns of the Aleuts, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 17: 503.Google Scholar
  17. Blane, H. T., 1968, “The Personality of the Alcoholic,” Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, J., 1970, A note on the division of labor by sex, Amer. Anthrop. 72: 1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bunzel, R., 1940, The role of alcoholism in two Central American cultures, Psychiatry 3: 361.Google Scholar
  20. Cappell, H., and Herman, C. P., 1972, Alcohol and tension reduction: A review, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 33: 33.Google Scholar
  21. Carpenter, E. S., 1959, Alcohol in the Iroquois dream quest, Amer. J. Psychiat. 116: 148.Google Scholar
  22. Child, I. L., Bacon, M. K., and Barry, H. III, 1965a, A crosscultural study of drinking: I Descriptive measurements of drinking customs, Quart J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 3: 1.Google Scholar
  23. Child, I. L., Barry, H. III, and Bacon, M. K., 1965b, A cross-cultural study of drinking: III Sex differences, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 3: 49.Google Scholar
  24. Conger, J. J., 1951, The effects of alcohol on conflict behavior in the albino rat, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 12: 1.Google Scholar
  25. Coopersmith, S., 1964, The effects of alcohol on reactions to affective stimuli, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 25: 459.Google Scholar
  26. Curley, R. T., 1967, Drinking patterns of the Mescalero Apache, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 28: 116.Google Scholar
  27. Dailey, R. C., 1968, The role of alcohol among North American Indian tribes as reported in Jesuit Relations. Anthropologica 10:45.Google Scholar
  28. Davis, K. E., 1972, Drug effects and drug use, in “Social Psychology in the Seventies” (L. S. Wrightsman, ed.), pp. 517–546, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.Google Scholar
  29. Devereaux, G., 1948, The function of alcohol in Mohave society, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 9: 207.Google Scholar
  30. Emerson, E. F., 1908, “Beverages, Past and Present: An Historical Sketch of their Production, Together with a Study of the Customs Connected with their Use,” Putnam Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Everett, M. W., 1971, Drinking, talking and fighting: An Apache dilemma, Paper, American Anthropological Association Meeting, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Field, P. B., 1962, A new cross-cultural study of drunkenness, in “Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns” (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 48–74, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Forbes, R. J., 1954, Chemical, culinary and cosmetic arts, in “A History of Technology” (C. Singer, E. J. Holmyard, and A. R. Hall, eds.), pp. 238–298, Oxford Univ. Press, London.Google Scholar
  34. Ford, C. S., 1967, “Cross-Cultural Approaches: Readings in Comparative Research,” HRAF Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  35. Frake, C. O., 1964a, Notes on queries in ethnography, Amer. Anthrop. 66: 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frake, C. O., 1964b, A structural description of Subanum “Religious Behavior,” in “Explorations in Cultural Anthropology” (W. Goodenough, ed.), pp. 111–130, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Gallagher, O. R., 1965, Drinking problems among tribal Bihar, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 26: 617.Google Scholar
  38. Geoghegan, W., 1969, Decision making and residence on Tagtabon Island Univ. Calif. Language Behavior Research Lab., Working Paper No. 17, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  39. Geoghegan, W., 1971, Information processing systems in culture, in “Explorations in mathematical anthropology” (P. Kay, ed.), pp. 4–35, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  40. Gewirtz, J. L. (ed.), 1972, “Attachment and Dependency,” Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Glad, D. D., 1947, Attitudes and experiences of American Jewish and American-Irish male youth as related to differences in adult rates of inebriety, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 8: 406.Google Scholar
  42. Goodenough, W., 1970, “Description and Comparison in Cultural Anthropology,” Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  43. Goodenough, W., 1971, “Culture, Language, and Society,” Addison-Wesley McCaleb Module.Google Scholar
  44. Gorer, G., 1938, “Himalayan Village: An Account of the Lepchas of Sikkim,” Michael Joseph, London.Google Scholar
  45. Greenberg, L. A., and Carpenter, J. A., 1957, The effect of alcoholic beverages on skin conductance and emotional tension. I. Wine, Whisky and alcohol., Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 18: 190.Google Scholar
  46. Hamer, J. H., 1965, Acculturation stress and the function of alcohol among the Forest Potawatomi, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 26: 285.Google Scholar
  47. Heath, D. B., 1952, “Alcohol in a Navaho Community,” A. B. thesis, Harvard College.Google Scholar
  48. Heath, D. B., 1958, Drinking Patterns of Bolivian Camba, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 19: 491.Google Scholar
  49. Heath, D. B., 1964, Prohibition and post-repeal drinking patterns among the Navajo. Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 25: 119.Google Scholar
  50. Hetherington, E. M., and Wray, N. P., 1964, Aggression, need for social approval, and humor preferences, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 68: 685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hitchcock, R., 1890, “The Ainus of Yezo Japan,” Report of U.S. Nat’l. Museum under direction of Smithsonian Inst., Washington.Google Scholar
  52. Honigmann, J. J., and Honigmann, I., 1945, Drinking in an Indian-white community, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 5: 575.Google Scholar
  53. Honigmann! J. J., and Honigmann, I., 1965, How the Baffin Island Eskimo have learned to use alcohol, Social Forces 44: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Horton, D., 1943, The functions of alcohol in primitive societies: A cross-cultural study, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 4: 199.Google Scholar
  55. Horton, D., 1959, Primitive societies, in “Drinking and Intoxication” (R. McCarthy, ed.), pp. 251–262, Free Press, Glencoe, I II.Google Scholar
  56. Jellinek, E. M., and McFarland, R. I., 1940, Analysis of psychological experiments on the effects of alcohol, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 1: 272.Google Scholar
  57. Jessor, R., Graves, T. D., Hanson, R. C., and Jessor, S. L., 1968, “Society, Personality, and Deviant Behavior,” Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Junker, W., 1892, “Travels in Africa During the Years 1882–1886,” Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  59. Kalin, R., McClelland, D. C., and Kahn, M., 1965, The effects of male social drinking on fantasy, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 1: 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalin, R., Davis, W. N., and McClelland, D. C., 1966, The relationship between use of alcohol and thematic content of folktales in primitive societies, in “The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis” (P. J. Stone, D. C. Dunphy, M. S. Smith, and D. M. Ogilvie, eds.), pp. 569–88, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  61. Kaplan, H. S., 1956, Effects of alcohol on fear extinction, Diss. Abst., 55: 571.Google Scholar
  62. Karsten, R., 1935, “The Head Hunters of Western Amazonas: The Life and Culture of the Jivaro Indians of Eastern Ecuador and Peru,” Societas Humanarum Litterarum, Vol. VII, No. 1, Centraltryckeriet, Helsingfors.Google Scholar
  63. Kastl, A. J., 1969, Changes in ego functioning under alcohol, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 30: 371.Google Scholar
  64. Kearney, M., 1970, Drunkenness and religious conversion in a Mexican village, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 31: 132.Google Scholar
  65. Keesing, R., 1971, Kwaio fosterage, Amer. Anthrop. 71:991.Google Scholar
  66. Keesing, R., 1972, Formalization and the construction of ethnographies, in “Explorations in Mathematical Anthropology” ( P. Kay, ed.), pp. 36–50, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  67. Keller, M., 1958, Beer and wine in ancient medicine, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 19: 153.Google Scholar
  68. Kissin, B., and Platz, A., 1968, The use of drugs in the long-term rehabilitation of chronic alcoholics, in “Psychopharmacology: Review of Progress, 1957–1967” (D. H. Efron, ed. ), Public Health Service Publication No. 1836, pp. 835–851.Google Scholar
  69. Klausner, S. Z., 1964, Sacred and profane meanings of blood and alcohol, J. Soc. Psychol. 64: 27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Krige, E. J., and Krige, J. D., 1943, “The Realm of a Rain-Queen”, Oxford, Univ. Press, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Leacock, S., 1964, Ceremonial drinking in an Afro-Brazilian cult, Amer. Anthrop. 66: 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lemert, E. M., 1954, Alcohol and the Northwest Coast Indians, U. Calif. Publications Cult. Soc., 2: 303.Google Scholar
  73. Lemert, E. M., 1962, Dependency in married alcoholics, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 23: 590.Google Scholar
  74. Lemert, E. M., 1964a, Forms and pathology of drinking in three Polynesian societies, Amer. Anthrop. 66: 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemert, E. M., 1964b, Drinking in Hawaiian plantation society, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 25: 689.Google Scholar
  76. Levy, R. I., 1966, Ma’ohi drinking patterns in the Society Islands, J. Polynes. Soc. 75: 304.Google Scholar
  77. Lisansky, E. S., 1957, Alcoholism in women: Social and psychological concomitants. I. Social history data, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 18: 588.Google Scholar
  78. Lisansky, E. S., 1959, Psychological effects, in “Drinking and Intoxication” (R. G. McCarthy, ed.), Publications Division Yale Center of Alcohol Studies, New Haven.Google Scholar
  79. Lobban, M. D., 1971, Cultural problems and drunkenness in an Arctic population, Brit. Med. J. 1: 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lolli, G., 1956, Alcoholism as a disorder of the love disposition, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 17: 96.Google Scholar
  81. Lolli, G., Serianni, E., Golder, G., and Luzzatto-Fegis, P., 1958, “Alcohol in ItaliA Culture,” Free Press, Glencoe, I II.Google Scholar
  82. Lomnitz, L., 1969a, Patterns of alcohol consumption among the Mapuche, Hum. Organiz. 28: 287.Google Scholar
  83. Lomnitz, L., 19696, Patrones de ingestion de alcohol entre migrantes mapuches en Santiago, Amer. indig. 29: 43.Google Scholar
  84. Lomnitz, L., 1969c, Funcion del alcohol en la sociedad Mapuche, Actapsiquiat. psicol. Amer lat. 15: 157.Google Scholar
  85. Lubart, J. M., 1969, Field study of adaptation of MacKenzie Delta Eskimos to social and economic change, Psychiatry 32: 447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Maccoby, E. E., and Masters, J. C., 1970, Attachment and dependency, in “Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology” (P. H. Mussen, ed.), Vol. II., pp. 73–157, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  87. Madsen, W., and Madsen, C., 1969, The cultural structure of Mexican drinking behavior, Quart.J. Stud. Alc. 30: 701.Google Scholar
  88. Mandelbaum, D. G., 1965, Alcohol and culture, Curr. Anthrop. 6: 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mangin, W. P., 1957, Drinking among Andean Indians, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 18: 55.Google Scholar
  90. Masserman, J. H., and Yum, K. S., 1946, An analysis of the influence of alcohol on experimental neurosis in càts, Psychosom. Med. 8: 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Masserman, J. H., Jacques, M. G., and Nicholson, M. R., 1945, Alcohol as a preventive of experimental neuroses, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 6: 281.Google Scholar
  92. Maxwell, M. A., 1952, Drinking behavior in the state of Washington, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 13: 219.Google Scholar
  93. Maynard, E., 1969, Drinking as part of an adjustment syndrome among the Oglala Sioux, Pine Ridge Res. Bull., S. D. 9: 35.Google Scholar
  94. McClelland, D. C., Davis, W., Wanner, E., and Kalin, R., 1966, A cross-cultural study of folk-tale content and drinking. Sociometry 29: 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McClelland, D. C., Davis, W. N., Kalin, R., and Wanner, E., 1972, “The Drinking Man,” Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  96. McCord, W., and McCord, J., 1960, “Origins of Alcoholism,” Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  97. McKinlay, A. P., 1948a, Early Roman Sobriety, Classic. Bull. 24: 52.Google Scholar
  98. McKinlay, A. P., 19486, Ancient experience with intoxicating drinks: non-classical peoples, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 9: 388.Google Scholar
  99. McKinlay, A. P., 1949a, Roman sobriety in the later Republic, Classic Bull. 25: 27.Google Scholar
  100. McKinlay, A. P., 1949b, Ancient experience with intoxicating drinks: Non-Attic Greek states, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 10: 289.Google Scholar
  101. McKinlay, A. P., 1951, Attic temperature, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 6: 102.Google Scholar
  102. McNamee, H. B., Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1968, Experimental analysis of drinking patterns of alcoholics: Concurrent psychiatric observations, Amer. J. Psychiat. 124: 1063.Google Scholar
  103. Mello, N. K., 1972, Behavioral studies of alcoholism, in “The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology” (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 219–291, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Mendelson, J. H. (ed.), 1964, Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics (Part 3, Psychiatric Findings by Mendelson, J. H., LaDou, J., and Solomon, P.) Quart. J. Stud. Alc. Suppl. No. 2: 40.Google Scholar
  105. Morris, J., 1938, “Living with Lepchas,” Heinemann, London.Google Scholar
  106. Mulford, H. A., and Miller, D. E., 1959, Drinking in Iowa: Sociocultural distribution of drinkers, with a methodological model for sampling evaluation and interpretation of findings, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 20: 704.Google Scholar
  107. Murdock, G. P., 1957, World ethnographic sample, Amer. Anthrop. 59: 664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Myerson, A., 1940, Alcohol: A study of social ambivalence, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 1: 13.Google Scholar
  109. Naroll, R., 1970, What have we learned from cross-cultural surveys? Amer. Anthrop. 72: 1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Netting, R. M., 1964, Beer as a locus of value among the West African Kofyar, Amer. Anthrop. 66: 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Robbins, M. D., and Pollnac, R. B., 1969, Drinking patterns and acculturation in rural Baganda, Amer. Anthrop. 71: 276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sadoun, R., Lolli, G., and Silverman, M., 1965, “Drinking in French Culture,” Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, New Brunswick, N.J.Google Scholar
  113. Sandoval, R. L., 1945, Drinking motivations among the Indians of the Ecuadorean Sierra, Primitive Man 18: 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Savard, R. J., 1968, Cultural stress and alcoholism: a study of their relationship between Navaho alcoholic men. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota (University Microfilm No. 69–1532 ).Google Scholar
  115. Sayres, W. C., 1956, Ritual drinking, ethnic status, and inebriety in rural Colombia, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 17: 53.Google Scholar
  116. Scarborough, B. B., 1957, Lasting effects of alcohol on the reduction of anxiety in rats, J. Genet. Psychol. 91: 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schaefer, J. M., 1973, A hologeistic study of family structure and sentiment, supernatural beliefs and drunkenness, PhD Thesis, SUNY Univ. Microfilms.Google Scholar
  118. Simmons, O. G., 1968, The sociocultural integration of alcohol use. A Peruvian study, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 29: 152.Google Scholar
  119. Smart, R. C., 1965, Effects of alcohol on conflict and avoidance behavior, Quart. J. Stud. Ale. 26: 187.Google Scholar
  120. Snyder, C. R., 1958, “Alcohol and the Jews: A Cultural Study of Drinking and Sobriety,” Free Press, Glencoe, I II.Google Scholar
  121. Spradley, J., 1970, “You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads,” Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  122. Sterne, M. E., 1966, “Drinking Patterns and Alcoholism among American Negroes,” Social Sci. Inst., Washington Univ., St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  123. Stout, D. B., 1947, “San Blas Cuna Acculturation: An Introduction,” Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No. 9, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Straus, R., and Bacon, S. D., 1953, “Drinking in College,” New Haven, Yale Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  125. Textor, R. B., 1967, “A Cross-Cultural Summary,” HRAF Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  126. Tomkins, S., 1966, Psychological model for smoking behavior, Amer. J. Publ. Hlth. 56: 17.Google Scholar
  127. Tomkins, S., 1973, The experience of affect as a determinant of smoking behavior, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 81: 172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Topper, M., 1972, Alcohol and the young Navaho male: A study in drinking and culture change, MS., Northwestern Univ.Google Scholar
  129. Underhill, R. M., 1946, Papago Indian religion, Columbia Univ. Contributions to Anthropology, No. 30, Columbia Univ. Press, N.Y.Google Scholar
  130. Wallgren, H., and Barry, H. III, 1970, “Actions of Alcohol,” Vol. 1. “Biochemical, Physiological, and Psychological Aspects,” Vol. 2. “Chronic and Clinical Aspects,” Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  131. Wanner, E., 1972, Power and inhibition: A revision of the magical potency theory, in “The Drinking Man” (McClelland, D. C., Davis, W. N., Kahn, R., and Wanner, E.), pp. 73–98, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  132. Washburne, C., 1961, “Primitive Drinking: A Study of the Uses and Functions of Alcohol in Preliterate Societies,” College and Univ. Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  133. Whiting, J. W. M., and Child, I. L., 1953, “Child Training and Personality: A Cross-Cultural Study,” Yale Univ. Press: New Haven.Google Scholar
  134. Whiting, J. W. M., 1969, Methods and problems in cross-cultural research, in “The Handbook of Social Psychology” (G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, eds.), pp. 693–728, Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
  135. Whittaker, J. 0., 1962, Alcohol and the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe I: The pattern of drinking, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 23: 468.Google Scholar
  136. Whittaker, J. 0., 1963, Alcohol and the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe II: Psychodynamic and cultural factors in drinking, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 24: 80.Google Scholar
  137. Williams, A. F., 1966, Social drinking, anxiety and depression, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 3: 689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Williams, A. F., 1968, Psychological needs and social drinking among college students, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 29: 355.Google Scholar
  139. Williams, P. H., and Straus, R., 1950, Drinking patterns of Italians in New Haven, Quart. J. Stud. Alc., 11:51, 247, 452, 586.Google Scholar
  140. Wilson, C. T., and Felkin, R. W., 1882, “Uganda and the Egyptian Soudan,” Sampson Low, Marston, London.Google Scholar
  141. Witkin, H. A., Karp, S. A., and Goodenough, D. R., 1959, Dependence in alcoholics, Quart. J. Stud. Alc. 20: 493.Google Scholar
  142. Wolcott, H. F., 1974, “The African Beer Gardens of Bulawayo: Integrated Drinking in a Segregated Society,” Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, New Brunswick, N.J.Google Scholar
  143. Wonnacott, T. H., and Wonnacott, R. J., 1972, “Introductory Statistics, 2nd ed.”, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret K. Bacon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyLivingston College Rutgers, the State UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations