Differential Competence for Adventitious Root Formation in Histologically Similar Cell Types

  • John R. Murray
  • M. Concepcion Sanchez
  • Alan G. Smith
  • Wesley P. Hackett
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 62)


Shoot tissue formed during the protracted juvenile phase of woody perennials lacks the ability to flower. With the transition to the mature phase, shoot apices or axillary meristems of newly formed tissue gain the ability to flower and this ability is maintained in subsequently formed shoot tissue (Zimmerman, 1973, 1976). In addition to this phase-dependent difference in ability to form flowers, other persistent phenotypic differences exist between shoot tissue of the basal (i.e., juvenile) and apical (i.e., mature) portions of a plant (Hackett, 1985; Poethig, 1990). Due to the protracted nature of both the juvenile and mature phases of woody plants, phase-dependent phenotypic characters are stably expressed through a large number of cell divisions over years of growth within a phase. It is presumed that phase-dependent characters do not result from a genetic change, but result from an epigenetic difference in the capacity to express genes that permit or prevent expression of a phenotype.


Adventitious Root Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Shoot Tissue Adventitious Root Formation Dark Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bachelard, E.P., and Stowe, B.B., 1962, A possible link between root initiation and anthocyanin formation, Nature 194:194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brand, M.H., and Lineberger, R.D., 1992, In vitro rejuvenation of Betida (Betulaceae): morphological evaluation, Amer. J. Bot. 79:79.Google Scholar
  3. Beakbane, A.B., 1961, Structure of the plant stem in relation to adventitious rooting, Nature 192:192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies, F.T., Lazarte, J.F., and Joiner, J.N., 1982, Initiation and development of roots in juvenile and mature leaf bud cuttings of Ficus pumila L., Amer. J. Bot. 69:69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Doss, R.P., Torre, L.C., and Barritt, B.H., 1980, An investigation of the influence of etiolation on the rooting of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., c.v. Meeker) root-shoots, Acta Hortic. 112:112.Google Scholar
  6. Doud, S.L., and Carlson, R.F., 1977, Effects of etiolation, stem anatomy, and starch reserves on root initiation of layered Malus clones, J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 102:102.Google Scholar
  7. Frolich, E.F., 1961, Etiolation and the rooting of cuttings, in: “Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc,” 11:277.Google Scholar
  8. Gardner, F.E., 1929, The relationship between tree age and rooting of cuttings, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 26:26.Google Scholar
  9. Gardner, R.E., 1936, Etiolation as a method of rooting apple variety stem cuttings, Proc. Amer. Soc Hortic. Sci. 34:34.Google Scholar
  10. Geneve, R.L., 1985, The role of ethylene in adventitious root initiation in de-bladed petioles of thejuvenile and mature phase of Hedera helix L., Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Minn., St. Paul.Google Scholar
  11. Geneve, R.L., Hackett, W.P., and Swanson, B.T., 1988, Adventitious root initiation in de-bladed petioles from juvenile and mature phases of English ivy, J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 113:113.Google Scholar
  12. Girouard, R.M., 1967a, Initiation and development of adventitious roots is stem cuttings of Hedera helix. Anatomical studies of the juvenile growth phase, Can. J. Bot. 45:1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Girouard, R.M., 1967b, Initiation and development of adventitious roots is stem cuttings of Hedera helix. Anatomical studies of the mature growth phase, Can. J. Bot. 45:1883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldberg, R.B. 1987, Emerging patterns of plant development, Cell 49:298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hackett, W.P., 1985, Juvenility, maturation and rejuvenation in woody plants, Hortic. Rev. 7:7.Google Scholar
  16. Hackett, W.P., and Murray, J.R., 1993, Maturation and rejuvenation in woody species, in: “Micropropagation of Woody Plants,” M.R. Ahuja, ed., Kluwer Academic Pubs., Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  17. Harrison-Murray, R.S., 1982, Etiolation of stock plants for improved rooting of cuttings: I. Opportunities suggested by work with apple, in: “Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc.,” 31:386.Google Scholar
  18. Herman, D.E., and Hess, C.E., 1963, The effect of etiolation upon the rooting of cuttings, in: “Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc,” 13:42.Google Scholar
  19. Hess, C.E., 1962, Characterization of rooting cofactors extracted from Hedera helix L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., in: “Proc. 16th Int. Hortic. Congr.,” p. 328.Google Scholar
  20. Hess, C.E., 1969, Internal and external factors regulating root initiation, in: “Root Growth,” W.J. Whittington, ed., Butterworths, London, p. 42.Google Scholar
  21. Howard, B.H., 1980, Plant propagation, in: “Rep. East Maillng Res. Sta. for 1979,” p. 67.Google Scholar
  22. Howard, B.H., 1981, Plant propagation, in: “Rep. East Maillng Res. Sta. for 1980,” p. 59.Google Scholar
  23. Howard, B.H., 1982, Plant propagation, in: “Rep. East Maillng Res. Sta. for 1981,” p. 57.Google Scholar
  24. Howard, B.H., 1984, Plant propagation, in: “Rep. East Maillng Res. Sta. for 1983,” p. 77.Google Scholar
  25. Howard, B.H., 1985, Plant propagation, in: “Rep. East Maillng Res. Sta. for 1984,” p. 131.Google Scholar
  26. Howard, B.H., Harrison-Murray, R.S., Vasek, J., and Jones, O.P., 1988, Techniques to enhance rooting potential before cutting collection, Ada Hortic. 227:227.Google Scholar
  27. Huang, L.-C., Hsiao, C.-K., Lee, S.-H., Huang, B.-L., and Murashige, T., 1992a, Restoration of vigor and rooting competence in stem tissues of mature citrus by repeated grafting of shoot apices onto freshly germinated seedlings in vitro, In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol., 28P:30.Google Scholar
  28. Huang, L.-C., Suwenza, L., Huang, B.-L., Murashige, T., Mahdi, E.F.M., and Gundy, R.V., 1992b, Rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens by repeated grafting of shoot tips onto juvenile rootstocks in vitro, Plant Physiol. 98:166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hutchison, K.W., Sherman, C.B., Weber, J., Smith, S.S., Singer, P.B., and Greenwood, M.S., 1990, Maturation in larch, II. Effects of age on photosynthesis and gene expression in developing foliage, Plant Physiol. 94:94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kawase, M., 1965, Etiolation and rooting of cuttings, Physiol. Plant. 18:18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kawase, M., and Matsui, H., 1980, Role of auxin in root primordium formation in etiolated ‘Red Kidney’ bean stems, J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 105:105.Google Scholar
  32. Maynard, B.K., and Bassuk, N.L., 1987, Stockplant etiolation and blanching of woody plants prior to cutting propagation, J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 112:112.Google Scholar
  33. Maynard, B.K., and Bassuk, N.L., 1988, Etiolation and banding effects on adventitious root formation, in: “Adventitious Root Formation by Cuttings,” T.D. Davis, B.E. Haissig, and N. Sankhla, eds., Adv. in Plant Sci. Ser., vol 2, Dioscorides Press, Portland, p. 29.Google Scholar
  34. McDaniel, C., 1982, Shoot meristem development, in: “Positional Controls in Plant Development,” P. Barlow, and D.J. Carr, eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. Mullins, M.G., 1985, Regulation of adventitious root formation in microcuttings, Acta Hortic. 166:166.Google Scholar
  36. Murray, J.R., and Hackett, W.P., 1991, Dihydroflavonol reductase activity in relation to differential anthocyanin accumulation in juvenile and mature phase Hedera helix L., Plant Physiol. 97:97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray, J.R., Smith, A.G., and Hackett, W.P., 1989, Phase-dependent competence for dihydroquercetin reductase and anthocyanin expression, in: “Abstracts of Hortic. Biotech. Symp.,” Aug. 21–23, 1989, Univ. of Calif., Davis.Google Scholar
  38. Poethig, R.S., 1990, Phase change and regulation of shoot morphogenesis in plants, Science 250:250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rogler, C.E., and Hackett, W.P., 1975, Phase change in Hedera helix: Induction of the mature to juvenile phase change by gibberellin A3, Physiol. Plant. 33:33.Google Scholar
  40. Schreiber, L.R., and Kawase, M., 1975, Rooting of cuttings from tops and stumps of American Elm, HortSci. 10:10.Google Scholar
  41. Stein, O.L., and Fosket, E.B., 1969, Comparative developmental anatomy of shoots of juvenile and adult Hedera helix, Amer. J. Bot. 56:56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stoutemyer, V.T., 1937, “Regeneration in Various Types of Apple Wood,” Res. Bull. Iowa Agric. Exp. Sta., No. 220, p. 308.Google Scholar
  43. Stoutemyer, V.T., 1961. Light and propagation, in: “Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc,” 11:252.Google Scholar
  44. Woo, H.-H., 1992, Molecular analysis of phase variation in Hedera helix L., English ivy, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Minn., St. Paul.Google Scholar
  45. Zimmerman, R.H., 1973, Juvenility and flowering in fruit trees, Acta Hortic. 34:34.Google Scholar
  46. Zimmerman, R.H., ed., 1976, “Symposium on Juvenility in Woody Perennials,” Acta Hortic, No. 56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Murray
    • 1
  • M. Concepcion Sanchez
    • 1
  • Alan G. Smith
    • 1
  • Wesley P. Hackett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations