Auxin Metabolism and Adventitious Root Initiation

  • David Blakesley
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 62)


In this chapter I will report on and discuss the role of auxins in adventitious root initiation, particularly the relations between endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the early events of adventitious rooting. The fact that IAA is involved is well established, although much of the data to support this is circumstantial. It will be not possible in this review paper to describe all the work on auxin application, transport and metabolism that might be relevant to studies of adventitious root initiation. Evidence derived from studies on auxin application has been reviewed many times [e.g., Audus (1959) and Blakesley et al. (1991b)] and will not be considered in detail in this paper. Evidence from more recent work on the analysis of endogenous auxin, and from studies on transgenic plant tissue, will be germane to the present paper. From these studies it will be apparent that we still do not have a clear understanding of the exact role of auxin in the process of adventitious root initiation. The aim of the latter part of this paper will be to describe briefly the newer technologies which are available to plant developmental physiologists, and to indicate new directions for researchers to approach the problem of auxin involvement in adventitious root initiation.


Hairy Root Adventitious Root Adventitious Root Formation Root Initiation Endogenous Auxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andreae, W.A., and Van Ysselstein, M.W.H., 1956, Studies on 3-indoleacetic acid metabolism, III. The uptake of 3-indoleacetic acid by pea epicotyls and its conversion to 3-indoleacetylaspartic acid, Plant Physiol. 31:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreae, W.A., 1967, Uptake and metabolism of indoleacetic acid, napthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by pea root segments in relation to growth inhibition during and after auxin application, Can. J. Bot. 45:45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreae, W.A., and Good, N.E., 1955, The formation of indoleacetylaspartic acid in pea seedlings, Plant Physiol. 30:380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audus, L.J., 1959, “Plant Growth Substances,” Leonard Hill, London.Google Scholar
  5. Bandurski, R.S., 1980, Homeostatic control of concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, in: “Plant Growth Substances 1979,” F. Skoog, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  6. Barbier-Brygoo, H., Guern, J., Ephritikhine, G., Shen, W.H., Maurel, C., and Klämbt, D., 1990, The sensitivity of plant protoplasts to auxin: modulation of receptors at the plasmalemma, in: “Plant Gene Transfer,” UCLA Symp. on Mol. and Cell. Biol, new ser., C. Lamb, and R. Beachy, eds., Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Berthon, J.Y., Boyer, N., and Gaspar, T., 1987, Sequential rooting media and rooting of Sequoiadendron giganteum in vitro, Peroxidase activity as a marker, Plant Cell Rep. 6:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berthon, J.Y., Maldiney, R., Sotta, B., Gaspar, T., and Boyer, B., 1989, Endogenous levels of plant hormones during the course of adventitious rooting in cuttings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) in vitro, Biochem. Physiol. Pfl. 184:184.Google Scholar
  9. Bialek, K., and Cohen, J.D., 1989, Free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and its derivatives in plants, Plant Physiol. 91:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biran, I., and Halevy, A.H., 1973, Stock plant shading and rooting of dahlia cuttings, Sci. Hortic. 1:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blakesley, D., Hall, J.F., Weston, G.D., and Elliott, M.C., 1985, Endogenous plant growth substances and the rooting of Phaseolus aureus cuttings, in: “Abst. 12th Int. Conf. Plant Growth Subs.,” Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  12. Blakesley, D., Weston, G.D., and Elliott, M.C., 1991a, Endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid during the rooting of Cotinus coggygria cuttings taken at different times of the year, Plant Growth Reg. 10:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blakesley, D., Weston, G.D., and Hall, J.F., 1991b, The role of endogenous auxin in root initiation. Part I: Evidence from studies on auxin application, and analysis of endogenous levels, Plant Growth Reg. 10:341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blakesley, D., and Chaldecott, M.C., 1993, The role of endogenous auxin in root initiation, Part II: Sensitivity, and evidence from studies on transgenic plant tissue, Plant Growth Reg. (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Cardarelli, M., Mariotti, D., Pomponi, M., Spanò, L., Capone, I., and Costantino, P., 1987a, Agrobacterium rhizogenies T-DNA genes capable of inducing hairy root phenotype, Mol. Gen. Genet. 209:475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cardarelli, M., Spanò, L., Marriotti, D., Mauro, M.L., Van Sluys, M.A., and Costantino, P., 1987b, The role of auxin in hairy root induction, Mol. Gen. Genet. 208:457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, J.D., and Bandurski, R.S., 1982, Chemistry and physiology of bound auxins, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coleman, W.K., and Greyson, R.I., 1977, Analysis of root formation in leaf discs of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cultured in vitro, Ann. Bot. 41:41.Google Scholar
  19. Doré, J., 1965, Physiology and regeneration of cormophytes, in: “Encyc. of Plant Physiol.,” W. Rhuland, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  20. Estruch, J.J., Schell, J., and Spena, A., 1991, The protein encoded by the rolB plant oncogene hydrolyses indole glucosides, EMBO J. 10:10.Google Scholar
  21. Ferrer, M.A., Pedreño, M.A., Muñoz, R., and Ros Barcelo, A., 1990, Oxidation of coniferyl alcohol by cell wall peroxidases at the expense of indole-3-acetic acid and O2. A model for the lignification of plant cell walls in the absence of H2O2, FEBS 276:276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferrer, M.A., Pedreño, M.A., Ros Barcelo, A., and Muñoz, R., 1992, The cell wall localization of two strongly basic isoperoxidases in etiolated Lupinus albus hypocotyls and its significance in coniferyl alcohol oxidation and indole-3-acetic acid catabolism, J. Plant Physiol. 139:139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feung, C.S., Hamilton, R.H., and Mumma, R.O., 1977, Metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid. IV. Biological properties of amino acid conjugates, Plant Physiol. 59:59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaspar, T., Penel, C., Castilllo, F.J., and Greppin, H., 1985, A two step control of basic and acidic peroxidases and its significance for growth and development, Physiol. Plant. 64:64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaspar, T., and Hofinger, H., 1988, Auxin metabolism during adventitious rooting, in: “Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings,” T.D. Davis, B.E. Haissig, and N. Sankhla, eds., Dioscorides Press, Portland.Google Scholar
  26. Gaspar, T., Moncousin, C., and Greppin, H., 1990, The place and role of exogenous and endogenous auxin in adventitious root formation, in: “Intracellular Communications in Plants,” B. Millet and H. Greppin, eds, INRA, Paris.Google Scholar
  27. Girouard, R.M, 1967, Initiation and development of adventitious roots in stem cuttings of Hedera helix, Can. J. Bot. 45:45.Google Scholar
  28. Grambow, H.J., and Langenbeck-Schwich, B., 1983, The relationship between oxidase activity, peroxidase activity, hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds in the degradation of indole-3-acetic acid in vitro, Planta. 157:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greenwood, M.S., Atkinson, O.R., and Yawney, H.W., 1976, Studies of hard-and easy-to-root ortets of sugar maple: Differences not due to endogenous auxin content, Plant Prop. 22:22.Google Scholar
  30. Harris, M.J., and Outlaw, W.H., 1990, Histochemical techniques: a low volume, enzyme-amplified immunoassay with sub-fmol sensitivity, Application to measurement of abscisic acid in stomatal guard cells, Physiol Plant. 78:78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hengst, K.H., 1959, Untersuchungen zur physiologie der regeneration in der guttang Streptocarpus, II. Korrelationsersheinungen and polarität, Z. Bot. 47:47.Google Scholar
  32. Huffman, G.A., White, F.F., Gordon, M.P., and Nester, E.W., 1984, Hairy-root-inducing plasmid: physical map and homology to tumor-inducing plasmids, J. Bacteriol. 157:157.Google Scholar
  33. Jarvis, B.C., 1986, Endogenous control of adventitious rooting in non-woody cuttings, in: “New Root Formation in Plants and Cuttings,” M.B. Jackson, ed, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  34. Jones, A.M., 1990, Location of transported auxin in etiolated maize shoots using 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid, Plant Physiol. 93:93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jouanin, L., 1984, Restriction map of an agropine-type Ri plasmid and its homologies with Ti plasmids, Plasmid. 12:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kracke, H., Cristoferi, G., and Marangoni, B., 1981, Hormonal changes during the rooting of hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks, Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 32:32.Google Scholar
  37. Label, P.H., Sotta, B., and Miginiac, E., 1989, Endogenous levels of abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid during in vitro rooting of wild cherry expiants produced by micropropagation, Plant Growth Reg. 8:8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Law, D.M., and Hamilton, R.A., 1982, A rapid isotope dilution method for analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and indoleacetyl aspartic acid from small amounts of plant tissue, Biophys. Res. Commun. 106:106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lovell, P.H., and White, J., 1986, Anatomical changes during adventitious root formation, in: “New Root Formation in Plants and Cuttings,” M.B. Jackson, ed., Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  40. Maldiney, R., Pelèse, F., Pilate, G., Sotta, B., Sossountzov, L., and Miginiac, E., 1986, Endogenous levels of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin and zeatin riboside during the course of adventitiousa root formation on cuttings of Craigella and Craigella lateral suppressor tomatoes, Physiol. Plant. 68:68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mato, M.C., Rua, M.L., and Ferro, E., 1988, Changes in levels of peroxidases and phenolics during root formation in Vitis cultured in vitro, Physiol. Plant. 72:72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maurel, C., Barbier-Brygoo, H., Brevet, J., Spena, A., Tempé, J., and Guern, J., 1991, Agrobacteriun rhizogenes T-DNA genes and sensitivity of plant protoplasts to auxins, in: “Advances in Mol. Genet. of Plant-Microbe Interactions,” vol. 1, H. Hennecke, and D.P.S. Verma, eds., Kluwer Academic Pubs., Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  43. Moncousin, C., Favre, J-M., and Gaspar, T., 1989, Early changes in auxin and ethylene production in vine cuttings before adventitious rooting, Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 19:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Netting, A.G., and Milborrow, B.V., 1988, Methane chemical ionization mass spectrometry of the pentafluorobenzyl derivatives of abscisic acid, its metabolites and other plant growth regulators, Biomed. Env. Mass Spectrom. 17:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nonhebel, H.M., Crozier, A., and Hillman, J.R., 1983, Analysis of [14C] indole-3-acetic acid metabolites from the roots of Zea mays seedlings using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, Physiol. Plant. 57:57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nordstrom, A.-C., Alvarado Jacobs, F., and Eliasson, L., 1991, Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid on internal levels of the respective auxins and their conjugation with aspartic acid during adventitious root formation in pea cuttings, Plant. Physiol. 96:96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nordström, A.C., and Eliasson, L., 1991, Levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid during adventitious root formation in pea cuttings, Physiol Plant. 82:82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Offringa, I.A., Melchers, L.S., Regensburg-Tuink, A.J.G., Costantino, P., Schilperoort, R.A., and Hooykaas, P.J.J., 1986, Complimentation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 83:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oppenoorth, J.M., 1979, Influence of cylohexamide and actinomycin D on initiation and early development of adventitious roots, Physiol. Plant. 47:134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pliiss, R., Titus, J., and Meier, H., 1989, IAA-induced adventitious root formation in greenwood cuttings of Populus tremula and formation of 2-indolone-3-acetylaspartic acid, a new metabolite of exogenously applied indole-3-acetic acid, Physiol. Plant. 75:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Prinsen, E., Bercetche, J., Chriqui, D., and van Onckelen, H., 1992, Pisum sativum epicotyls inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes agropine strains harbouring various T-DNA fragments: Morphology, histology and endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetamide content, J. Plant Physiol. 140:140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reinecke, D.M., and Bandurski, R.S., 1981, Metabolic conversion of 14C-indole-3-acetic acid to 14C-oxindole-3-acetic acid, Biochem. Biophys. Res Commun. 103:103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reinecke, D.M., and Bandurski, R.S., 1988, Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays, Plant Physiol. 86:86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ros Barcelo, A., Pedreño, M.A., Ferrer, M.A., Sabater, F., and Muñoz, R., 1990, Indole-3-methanol is the main product of the oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid catalyzed by two cytosolic basic isoperoxidases from Lupinus, Planta. 181:181.Google Scholar
  55. Ryder, M.H., Tate, M.E, and Kerr, A., 1985, Virulence properties of strains of Agrobacterium on the apical and basal surfaces of carrot root discs, Plant Physiol. 77:77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sabater, F., Acosta, M., Sanchez-Bravo, J., Cuello, J., and del Rio, J.A., 1983, Indole-3-methanol as an intermediate of the oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid by peroxidase, Physiol. Plant. 57:57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shen, W.H., Davioud, E., David, C., Barbier-Brygoo, H., Tempé, J., and Guern, J., 1990, High sensitivity to auxin is a common feature of hairy root, Plant Physiol. 94:94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shen, W.H., Petit, A., Guern, J., and Tempé, J., 1988, Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:85.Google Scholar
  59. Smith, D.R., and Thorpe, T.A., 1975, Root initiation in cuttings of Pinus radiata seedlings, I. Developmental sequence, J. Exp. Bot. 26:26.Google Scholar
  60. Smith, N.G., and Wareing, P.F., 1972, The rooting of actively growing and dormant leafy cuttings in relation to the endogenous hormone levels and photoperiod, New Phytol. 71:71.Google Scholar
  61. Stolz, L.P., 1968, Factors influencing root initiation in an easy and a difficult-to-root Chrysanthemum, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 92:92.Google Scholar
  62. Stroobants, C., Sossountzov, L., and Miginiac, E., 1991, Immunocytolocalisation du riboside de la zéatine dans des feuilles de tabac isolées et bouturées, cours des phases initiales de la rhizogénèse, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 312:312.Google Scholar
  63. Trewavas, A.J., 1981, How do plant growth substances work? I, Plant, Cell and Env. 4:4.Google Scholar
  64. Trewavas, A.J., 1991, How do plant growth substances work? H, Plant, Cell and Env. 14:14.Google Scholar
  65. Venis, M.A., 1972, Auxin-induced conjugation system in peas, Plant Physiol. 49:49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wiesman, Z., Riov, J., and Epstein, E., 1988, Comparison of movement and metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in mung bean cuttings, Physiol. Plant. 74:74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wiesman, Z., Riov, J., and Epstein, E., 1989, Characterization and rooting ability of indole-3-butyric acid conjugates formed during rooting of mung bean cuttings, Plant. Physiol. 91:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. White, F.F., Taylor, B.H., Huffman, G.A., Gordon, M.P., and Nester, E.W., 1985, Molecular and genetic analysis of the transferred DNA regions of the root-inducing plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, J Bacteriol. 164:164.Google Scholar
  69. Wu, F.T., and Barnes, M.F., 1981, The hormone levels in the stems of difficult-to-root and easy-to-root rhododendrons, Biochem. Biophys. Pfl. 176:176.Google Scholar
  70. Zenk, M.H., 1964, Isolation, biosynthesis and function of indoleacetic acid conjugates, in: “Rég. Nat. Croiss. Vég.”, J.P. Nitsch, ed., C.N.R.S., Paris.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Blakesley
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BathBathUK

Personalised recommendations