Production of Nitrosyl Mediators in Astrocytes

  • Sean Murphy
  • Martha L. Simmons
Part of the Altschul Symposia Series book series (ALSS, volume 2)


Astroglial cells have the potential to play a dynamic role in intercellular communication in the CNS. These cells display a variety of surface receptors and have been shown to release a number of vaso- and neuroactive compounds (Murphy, 1993). The close spatial relationships of astrocytes with neurons, and with the microvasculature, implicates them in bidirectional signalling processes.


Nitric Oxide Astrocyte Culture Ibotenic Acid Primary Astrocyte Culture NADPH Diaphorase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agullo, L., and Garcia, A., 1991, Norepinephrine increases cyclic GMP in astrocytes by a mechanism dependent on nitric oxide synthesis, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 206: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agullo L., and Garcia A., 1992, Different receptors mediate stimulation of nitric oxide-dependent cyclic GMP formation in neurons and astrocytes in culture, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 182: 1362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aoki E., Semba R., Mikoshiba K., and Kashiwamata S., 1991, Predominant localization in glial cells of free L-arginine. Immunocytochemical evidence, Brain Res. 547: 190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benveniste, E.N., 1993, Astrocyte-microglia interactions, in: “Astrocytes: Pharmacology and Function,” S. Murphy, ed., Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  5. Bredt D.S., Hwang P.M., and Snyder S.H., 1990, Localization of nitric oxide synthase indicating a neural role for nitric oxide, Nature 347: 768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bredt D.S., Hwang P.M., Glatt C.E., Lowenstein C., Reed R.R., and Snyder S.H., 1991, Cloned and expressed nitric oxide synthase structurally resembles cytochrome P-450 reductase, Nature 351: 714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawson, T.M., Bredt, D.S., Fotuhi, M., Hwang, P.M., and Snyder, S.H., 1991, Nitric oxide synthase and neuronal NADPH are identical in brain and peripheral tissues, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 7797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Forstermann, U., Schmidt, H.H.H.W., Pollock, J.S., Sheng, H., Mitchell, J.A., Warner, T.D., Nakane, M., and Murad, F., 1991, Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, Biochem. Pharmacol. 42: 1849.Google Scholar
  9. Garthwaite, J., 1991, Glutamate, nitric oxide and cell-cell signalling in the nervous system, Trends Neurosci. 14: 60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gross, S.S., Jaffe, E.A.,Levi, R., and Kilboum, R.G., 1991, Cytokine-activated endothelial cells express an isotype of nitric oxide synthase which is tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent, calmodulin-independent and inhibited by arginine analogs with a rank-order of potency characteristic of activated macrophages, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 178: 823.Google Scholar
  11. Lyons, C.R., Orloff, G.J., and Cunningham, J.M., 1992, Molecular cloning and functional expression of an inducible nitric oxide synthase from a murine macrophage cell line, J. Biol. Chem. 267: 6370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. McCall, T.B., Palmer R.M.J., and Moncada, S., 1991, Induction of nitric oxide synthase in rat peritoneal neutrophils and its inhibition by dexamethasone, Eur. J. Immunol. 21: 2523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moncada, S., Palmer, R.M., and Higgs E.A., 1991, Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, Pharm. Rev. 43: 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Murphy, S., 1993, “Astrocytes: Pharmacology and Function”, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  15. Murphy, S., Minor R.L., Welk, G., and Harrison D.G., 1990, Evidence for an astrocyte-derived vasorelaxing factor with properties similar to nitric oxide, J. Neurochem. 55: 349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murphy, S., Minor R.L., Welk G., and Harrison D.G., 1991, Central nervous system astroglial cells release nitrogen oxide(s) with vasorelaxant properties, J. Cardovasc. Pharmacol. 17: S265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Salter, M., Knowles, R.G., and Moncada, S.,1991, Widespread tissue distribution, species distribution and changes in activity of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent nitric oxide synthases, FEBS Lett. 291: 145.Google Scholar
  18. Simmons, M.L., and Murphy, S., 1992, Induction of a nitric oxide synthase in glial cells, J. Neurochem. 59: 897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stuehr D.J., and Nathan C.F., 1989, Nitric oxide: A macrophage product responsible for cytostasis and respiratory inhibition in tumor target cells, J. Exp. Med. 169: 1543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xie, Q.W., Cho, H., Calaycay, J., Mumford, R., Swiderek, K., Lee, T.,Ding, A., Troso, T., and Nathan, C.,1992, Cloning and characterization of inducible nitric oxide synthase from mouse macrophages, Science 256: 225.Google Scholar
  21. Zielasek, J., Tausch M., Toyka, K.V., and Hartung, H.-P., 1992, Production of nitrite by neonatal rat microglial cells/brain macrophages, Cell. Immunol. 141: 111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Murphy
    • 1
  • Martha L. Simmons
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations