Inter-Cellular Signalling by Nitric Oxide
It has been known for many years that excitation in the central nervous system is associated with marked elevations in the levels of the second messenger, cyclic GMP (cGMP) (Drummond, 1983). These are now known to be mediated through the release of the novel messenger molecule, nitric oxide (NO), which functions as a powerful activator of the soluble form of the cGMP synthesising enzyme, guanylate cyclase (Garthwaite, 1991). NO has a number of properties which set it apart from conventional signalling molecules, not least of which is its ability to diffuse readily across membranes and so act on cellular elements located some distance from the site of its formation. As discussed below, the targets for neuronally-derived NO include other neurons and neighbouring glial cells.
KeywordsNitric Oxide NMDA Receptor Dorsal Root Ganglion Satellite Cell Excitatory Amino Acid Receptor
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Drummond, G.I., 1983, Cyclic nucleotides in the nervous system. Adv. Cyclic Nucl. Res. 15: 373–494.Google Scholar
- Hibbs, J.B., Taintor, R.R., Vavrin, Z., Granger, D.L., Drapier, J-C., Amber, I.J., and Lancaster, J.R., 1990, Synthesis of nitric oxide from a terminal guanidino nitrogen atom of L-arginine: a molecular mechanism regulating cellular proliferation that targets intracellular iron, in: “Nitric Oxide from Arginine: a Bioregulatory System, S. Moncada and E.A. Higgs, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 189–223.Google Scholar
- Pollock, J.S., Forstermann, U., Mitchell, J.A., Warner, T.D., Nakane, M., Schmidt, H.H.H.W., and Murad, F., 1991, Purification and characterization of particulate endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthase from cultured and native bovine aortic endothelial cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 10480–10484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Togashi, H., Sakuma, I., Yoshioka, M., Kobayashi, T., Yasuda, H., Kitabatake, A., Saito, H., Gross, S.S. and Levi, R., 1992, A central nervous system action of nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 262: 343–347.Google Scholar
- Wood, P.L., Emmett, M.R., Rao, T.S., Cler, J., Mick, S., and Iyengar, S., 1990, Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate-, quisqualate-, kainate-, harmaline-, and pentylenetetrazol-dependent increases in cerebellar cyclic GMP in vivo, J. Neurochem. 55: 346–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar