Hyperexcitability of Neurons and Astrocytes in Epileptic Human Cortex

  • Ann H. Cornell-Bell
  • Anne Williamson
Part of the Altschul Symposia Series book series (ALSS, volume 2)


Glutamate elicits an excitatory physiological response from most neurons and glia throughout the vertebrate CNS (Shank and Aprison, 1988). With the development of selective agonists and antagonists, five classes of excitatory amino acid receptors (EAA) have been defined. Three of these receptors have been described by their depolarizing actions (NMDA, Kainate [KA], Quisqualate [QUIS/AMPA]). AMPA has recently been shown to be a more selective agonist for the receptor-ion channel complex (Monaghan et al, 1989). A fourth, the AP4 receptor, appears to represent an inhibitory autoreceptor (Watkins et al, 1990). The fifth receptor (metabotropic), which is activated by trans-ACPD and modifies inositol phosphate metabolism (Palmer et al, 1989), appears to have a role in intracellular calcium regulation (Miller et al., 1992). The distribution of these multiple subtypes of glutamate receptors varies among cell types. The array of glutamate receptors that are found on neurons includes the NMDA receptor which is apparently lacking from the glial composite.


NMDA Receptor Glutamate Receptor Excitatory Amino Acid Epileptic Focus Excitatory Amino Acid Receptor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann H. Cornell-Bell
    • 1
  • Anne Williamson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cell BiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Section of NeurosurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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