Sources and Targets of Cytokines in the Central Nervous System

  • D. Giulian
  • Johnson George
Part of the Altschul Symposia Series book series (ALSS, volume 2)


Cytokines may be defined as soluble proteins that mediate immune responses. They now include a variety of molecules such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, interferons, and colony stimulating factors (Dinarello, 1987; Dinarello,1988, Metcalf, 1984). Typically these agents have been identified by in vitro assays which employ lymphoid cells or monocytoid cells as sources or targets. When examined outside the immune system, cytokines are often found to be pluripotent and take on subtle or opposing functions than those identified by cell culture. It is becoming clear that the traditional definition of a cytokine (based upon an in vitro assay) may not, in fact, reflect physiologic function.


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Cerebral Malaria Mononuclear Phagocyte Central Nervous System Injury Central Nervous System Inflammation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Giulian
    • 1
  • Johnson George
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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