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Some Activities of the Oxidant Chromate

  • Hyoung-Sook Park
  • Sean O’Connell
  • Saul Shupack
  • Edward Yurkow
  • Charlotte M. Witmer
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 387)

Abstract

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are recognized mutagens and carcinogens (IARC, 1980), although the mechanism of action is unknown. Chromium compounds commonly exist in the Cr(VI) and trivalent ([Cr(III)] states, with the Cr(III) state as the most stable form of chromium. Cr(III) compounds differ from Cr(VI) not only in that they are more stable but they exist as cations in octahedral form (with six ligands) and cannot cross membranes readily. They are considered to be non-bioavailable and non-carcinogenic. Cr(VI) compounds, which exist as the oxides or the oxyanions and thus readily cross membranes, are rapidly reduced in the body (both intra- and extracellularly) to the stable Cr(III) via Cr(V) and Cr(IV). Some synthetic Cr(III) complexes, with lipid soluble organic anions as ligands such as the picolinate, cross membranes fairly readily. Cr(III) complexes formed in situ gain entry to the nucleus, as only Cr(III) is detected bound to DNA. Thus it may be that only the Cr(III) formed in situ is toxic. Cr(VI) compounds are not mutagenic without metabolic reduction, (Petrilli and De Flora, 1978). The intermediates, Cr(V) and Cr(IV), are being investigated as putative toxins/carcinogens of Cr(VI). Cr(V) has been detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) on reduction of Cr(VI) in cells in culture and in vitro (O’Brien et al., 1981; Goodgame and Joy, 1986; Shi and Dalai, 1988; Aiyar et al., 1988;Sugiyama, 1991; Witmer et al., 1994). Both Cr(V) and Cr(IV) can disproportionate so that the reduction of Cr(VI) is not a straightforward process, A two-electron reduction of Cr(VI) is catalyzed by DT diaphorase, which also decreases the mutagenicity of Cr(VI) in vitro.

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Electron Paramagnetic Resonance A549 Cell Reactive Oxygen Species Production Hexavalent Chromium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyoung-Sook Park
    • 1
  • Sean O’Connell
    • 2
  • Saul Shupack
    • 1
  • Edward Yurkow
    • 1
  • Charlotte M. Witmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Toxicology Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences InstituteRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA
  2. 2.Heartland Biotechnologies DavenportIowaUSA

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