The Weakening Effect as a Trigger for Biological Control and Criteria for Its Evaluation

  • J. Katan
  • C. Ginzburg
  • S. Freeman
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 230)


Eradication of a pathogen population with high dosages of killing agents involves many difficulties: detrimental effects on nontarget beneficial organisms, high cost, environmental pollution, and problems of application. This is especially true with soilborne pathogens which are deeply embedded in the soil and are strongly affected by antagonists. An alternative means of control would be to use sublethal dosages which weaken the pathogen and enable reasonable and effective control while minimizing the above difficulties. The main question is, under what conditions and with which pathogens can such a sublethal treatment (which initially causes only a partial reduction of pathogen population) lead, at a later stage, to a reduction in inoculum density and inoculum potential. In this presentation we shall place the emphasis on soilborne pathogens although the major concepts are relevant also to foliar pathogens.


Fusarium Oxysporum Heat Shock Response Inoculum Density Pathogen Population Methyl Bromide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Baker, K. F., 1983, The future of biological control, pages 422–430, in: “Challenging Problems in Plant Health”, T. Kommedahl and P. H. Williams, eds., American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul., MIN.Google Scholar
  2. Ben-Yephet, Y., Melero, J. M., and DeVay, D. E., 1988, Interaction of soil solarization and metham-sodium in the destruction of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Crop Prot.7: 327.Google Scholar
  3. Bienz, M., and Pelham, H. R. B., 1987, Mechanisms of heat shock deactivation of heat shock gene activation in higher eukaryotes, Adv. Genet. 24: 31Google Scholar
  4. Bliss, D. E., 1951, The destruction of Armillaria mellea in citrus soils, Phytopathology 41: 665.Google Scholar
  5. Davey, A. E., and Leach, L. D., 1941, Experiments with fungicides for use against Sclerotium rolfsii in soils, Hilgardia 10: 523.Google Scholar
  6. DiDomenico, B. J., Bugaisky, G. E., and Lindquist, S., 1982, The heat shock response in self-regulated at both the transcriptional and postranscriptional levels, Cell, 31: 593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frank, Z. R., Ben-Yephet, Y., and Katan, J., 1986, Synergistic effect of metham and solarization in controlling delimited shell spots of peanut pods, Crop Prot. 5: 199.Google Scholar
  8. Fravel, D. R., 1990, Effect of sublethal metham-sodium treatments on microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae, Phytopathology 80: 670 (abstract.).Google Scholar
  9. Freeman, S., Ginzburg, C., and Katan, J., 1989, Heat shock protein synthesis in propagules of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Phytopathology 79: 1054.Google Scholar
  10. Freeman, S., and Katan, J., 1988, Weakening effect on propagules of Fusarium by sublethal heating, Phytopathology 78: 1656.Google Scholar
  11. Garrett, S. D., 1956, Biology of Root Infecting Fungi, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  12. Greenberger, A., Yogev, A., and Katan, J., 1987, Induced suppressiveness in solarized soils, Phytopathology 87: 1663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Henis, Y., and Papavizas, G. C., 1983, Factors affecting germinability and susceptibility to attack of sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii by Trichoderma harzianum in field soil, Phytopathology 73: 1469.Google Scholar
  14. Katan, J., 1981, Solar heating (solarization) of soil for control of soil-borne pest, Annu.Rev. Phytopathol. 19: 211.Google Scholar
  15. Katan, J., 1987, Soil solarization, pages 77–105, in: “Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control”, I. Chet, ed., John Wiley and Sons, NY.Google Scholar
  16. Katan, J., DeVay, J. E., and Greenberger, A., 1989, The biological control induced by soil solarization, pages 493–499, in: “Vascular Wilt Diseases of Plants”, E. C. Tjamos and C. H. Beckman, eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. Lifshitz, R., Tabachnik, M., Katan, J., and Chet, I., 1983, The effect of sublethal heating on sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii, Can. J. Microbiol. 29: 1607.Google Scholar
  18. Lindquist, S., and Craig, E. A., 1988, The heat-shock proteins, Annu. Rev. Genet. 22: 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Munnecke, D. E., Wilbur, W., and Darley, E. F., 1976, Effect of heating or drying on Armillaria mellea or Trichoderma viride and the relation to survival of A. mellea in soil, Phytopathology 66: 1363.Google Scholar
  20. Phillips, A. J. L., 1990, The effects of soil solarization on scierotial populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Plant Pathol. 39: 38.Google Scholar
  21. Pullman, G. S., DeVay, J. E., and Garber, R. H., 1981, Soil solarization and thermal death: a logarithmic relationship between time and temperature for four soilborne plant pathogens, Phytopathology 71: 959.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, A. M., 1972, Nutrient leakage promotes biological control of dried sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Soil Bio. Biochem. 4: 125.Google Scholar
  23. Stapleton, J. J., and DeVay, J. E., 1983, Response of phytoparasitic and free-living nematodes to soil solarization and 1,3-dichloropropene in California, Phytopathology 74: 255.Google Scholar
  24. Tjamos, E. C., 1984, Control of Pyrenochaeta lycopersici by combined soil solarization and low dose of methyl bromide in Greece, Acta Hortic., (The Hague) 152: 253.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Katan
    • 1
  • C. Ginzburg
    • 2
  • S. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of AgricultureThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Ornametal Horticulture AROThe Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael

Personalised recommendations