Biofeedback pp 323-363 | Cite as

Guidelines for Controlled Clinical Trials of Biofeedback

  • John P. Hatch


The authors of the foregoing chapters have assembled a tremendous amount of data pertaining to the clinical efficacy of biofeedback. Their evaluations of the evidence lead to the conclusion that significant progress is being made in the quality as well as the quantity of biofeedback research. In spite of these very positive and encouraging findings, however, the research in the area is not flawless, and it is important to ask how even stronger evidence could be generated in the future. In other words, what features should be incorporated into the next generation of clinical biofeedback studies? The authors of each chapter were instructed to address this question from the perspective of their own area of expertise. One conclusion, common to all areas, was that more studies are needed that could be described as controlled clinical trials. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a guide to some of the issues that should be considered in conducting controlled clinical trials used to evaluate biofeedback as a treatment modality. The emphasis on the word guide is important because research is largely a creative endeavor, and it is impossible to provide a formula applicable to all situations.


Response Variable Control Clinical Trial Nonspecific Effect Relaxation Training Biofeedback Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Hatch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryThe University of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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