Biofeedback pp 179-209 | Cite as

Biofeedback in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders

  • William E. Whitehead
  • Marvin M. Schuster


The following is an update of the 1978 report of the task force on biofeedback for gastrointestinal disorders. It details new applications of biofeedback in the areas of fecal incontinence, irritable bowel syndrome, rumination syndrome, and esophageal motility disorders; and it reports new data on the efficacy of previously published biofeedback applications for digestive disorders.


Ulcerative Colitis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Duodenal Ulcer Fecal Incontinence Anal Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aleo, S., and Nicassio, P. (1978). Auto-regulation of duodenal ulcer disease: A preliminary report of four cases. Proceedings of the Biofeedback Society of America (Ninth Annual Meeting). Denver, Colorado: Biofeedback Society of America. Pp. 278–281. Abstract.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, F., French, T. M., and Pollock, G. H. (1968). Psychosomatic specificity, Vol. 1. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Almy, T. P. (1951). Experimental studies on the irritable colon. American Journal of Medicine, 9, 60–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almy, T. P. (1977). Wrestling with the irritable colon. Medical Clinics of North America, 62, 203–210.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, T. S., Hendricksen, H., and Clayton, J. A. (1974). A special feeding technique for chronic regurgitation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 78, 486–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beaty, E. T. (1976). Feedback assisted relaxation training as a treatment for peptic ulcers. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 323–324. Abstract.Google Scholar
  8. Bellman, M. (1966). Studies on encopresis. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 56 (Suppl. 170).Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, J. R., and Hendrix, T. R. (1970). Diffuse esophageal spasm: A disorder with more than one cause. Gastroenterology, 59, 273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Binder, V., Both, H., Hansen, P. K., Hendriksen, C., Kreiner, S., and Torp-Pedersen, K. (1982). Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Chrohn’s disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962 to 1978. Gastroenterology, 83, 563–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blum, A. L., Peter, P., and Krejs, G. J. (1975). Pathogenesis and aetiology of ulcer disease. Part II. Duodenal ulcer. Acta Hepato-Gastroenterologica, 22, 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolin, T. D., Davis, A. E., and Duncombe, V. M. (1982). A prospective study of persistent diarrhoea. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 12, 22–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonnevie, O. (1975a). The incidence of gastric ulcer in Copenhagen County. Scandanavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 10, 231–239.Google Scholar
  14. Bonnevie, O. (1975b). The incidence of duodenal ulcer in Copenhagen County. Scandanavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 10, 385–393.Google Scholar
  15. Brocklehurst, J. C. (1972). Bowel management in the neurologically disabled. The problems of old age. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 65, 66–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bueno-Miranda, F., Cerulli, M., and Schuster, M. M. (1976). Operant conditioning of colonic motility in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Gastroenterology. 70, 867.Google Scholar
  17. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Frexinos, J., and Ruckebusch, Y. (1980). Colonic myoelectrical activity in diarrhea and constipation. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 27, 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Castell, D. O. (1976). Achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm. Archives of Internal Medicine, 136, 571–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cerulli, M. A., Nikoomanesh, P., and Schuster, M. M. (1979). Progress in biofeedback conditioning for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology, 76, 742–746.Google Scholar
  20. Chaudhary, N. A., and Truelove, S. C. (1962). The irritable bowel syndrome: A study of the clinical features, predisposing causes, and the prognosis in 130 cases. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 31, 307–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clouse, R. E., and Lustman, P. J. (1983). Psychiatric illness and contraction abnormalities of the esophagus. New England Journal of Medicine, 309, 1337–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Connell, A. M. (1962). The motility of the pelvic colon. II. Paradoxical motility in diarrhoea and constipation. Gut, 3, 342–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deckner, C. W., Hill, J. T., and Bourne, J. R. (1972). Shaping of human gastric motility. Proceedings of the 80th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  24. Denis, P., Cayron, G., and Galmiche, J. P. (1981). Biofeedback: The light at the end of the tunnel? Maybe for constipation. Gastroenterology, 80, 1089–1090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Drossman, D. A., Sandler, R. S., McKee, D. C., and Lovitz, A. J. (1982). Bowel patterns among subjects not seeking health care: Use of a questionnaire to identify a population with bowel dysfunction. Gastroenterology, 83, 529–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Engel, B. T., Nikoomanesh, P., and Schuster, M. M. (1974). Operant conditioning of rectosphincteric responses in the treatment of fecal incontinence. New England Journal of Medicine, 290, 646–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Engel, G. L. (1954). Studies of ulcerative colitis. I. Clinical data bearing on the nature of the somatic process. Psychosomatic Medicine, 16, 496–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Einhorn, A. H. (1972). Rumination syndrome (merycism or merycasm). In H. L. Barnett (Ed.), Pediatrics (pp. 1576–1578 ). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  29. Enck, P., Steckler, I., Whitehead, W. E., Tucker, H., and Schuster, M. M. (1984). Lactose intolerance versus irritable bowel syndrome: Physiological and psychological comparison. Gastroenterology, 86, 1070.Google Scholar
  30. Esler, M. D., and Goulston, K. J. (1973). Levels of anxiety in colonic disorders. New England Journal of Medicine, 288, 16–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Faulkner, W. B., Jr. (1940). Severe esophageal spasm: An evaluation of suggestion-therapy as determined by means of the esophagoscope. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2, 139–140.Google Scholar
  32. Fava, G. A., and Pavan, L. (1976–1977) Large bowel disorders. I. Illness configuration and life events. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 27, 93–99.Google Scholar
  33. Ferguson, A., Sircus, W., and Eastwood, M. A. (1977). Frequency of “functional” gastrointestinal disorders. Lancet, 2, 613–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Freeland, A. P., Ardran, G. M., and Emrys-Roberts, E. (1974). Globus hystericus and reflux oesophagitis. Journal of Laryngology, 88, 1025–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furman, S. (1973). Intestinal biofeedback in functional diarrhea: A preliminary report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 4, 317–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giles, S. L. (1978). Separate and combined effects of biofeedback training and brief individual psychotherapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, (5-B), 2495.Google Scholar
  37. Goldenberg, D. A., Hodges, K., Hersh, T., and Jinich, H. (1980). Biofeedback therapy for fecal incontinence. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 74, 342–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gorman, P. J. (1976). Cephalic influences on human gastric acid secretion and their voluntary control through feedback training. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 6413B. (University Microfilms No. 76–6661).Google Scholar
  39. Grace, W. J., Pinsky, R. H., and Wolff, H. G. (1954). The treatment of ulcerative colitis. II. Gastroenterology, 26, 462–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Groen, J., and Bastiaans, J. (1951). Psychotherapy of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology, 17, 344–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamilton, J. R., Bruce, G. A., Abdourhaman, M., and Gall, D. G. (1979). Inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents. Advances in Pediatrics, 26, 311–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harvey, R. F., Salih, S. Y., and Read, A. E. (1983). Organic and functional disorders in 2000 gastroenterology outpatients. Lancet, 1, 632–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haskell, B., and Rovner, H. (1967), Electromyography in the management of the incompetent anal sphincter. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 10, 81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haynes, S. N. (1976). Electromyographic biofeedback treatment of a woman with chronic dysphagia. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 121–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heefner, J. D., Wilder, R. M., and Wilson, I. D. (1978). Irritable colon and depression. Psychosomatics, 19, 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Henderson, R. D. (1980). Motor disorders of the esophagus (2nd ed.) Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  47. Hislop, I. G. (1971). Psychological significance of the irritable colon syndrome. Gut, 12, 452–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holdstock, D. J., Misiewicz, J. J., and Waller, S. L. (1969). Observations on the mechanism of abdominal pain. Gut, 10, 19–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobson, E. (1927). Spastic esophagus and mucous colitis: Etiology and treatment by progressive relaxation. Archives of Internal Medicine, 39, 433–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson, L. F. (1980). 24-hour pH monitoring in the study of gastroesophageal reflux. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 2, 387–399.Google Scholar
  51. Kanner, L. (1936). Historical notes on rumination in man. Medical Life, 43, 26–61.Google Scholar
  52. Kanner, L. (1972). Child psychiatry (4th ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Karush, A., Daniels, G., Flood, C., O’Connor, J., Druss, R., and Sweeting, J. (1977). Psychotherapy in chronic ulcerative colitis. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  53. Kirsner, J. B., and Shorter, R. G. (1982). Recent developments in “nonspecific” inflammatory bowel disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 775–785, 837–848.Google Scholar
  54. Latimer, P. R. (1978). Crohri s disease: A review of the psychological and social outcome. Psychological Medicine, 8, 649–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Latimer, P. R. (1981). Biofeedback and self-regulation in the treatment of diffuse esophageal spasm: A single-case study. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 181–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Latimer, P. R. (1983). Functional gastrointestinal disorders: A behavioral approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Latimer, P., Sarna, S., Campbell, D., Latimer, M., Waterfall, W., and Daniel, E. E. (1981). Colonic motor and myoelectrical activity: A comparative study of normal subjects, psychoneurotic patients, and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 80, 893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Latimer, P. R., Campbell, D., and Kasperski, J. (1984). A components analysis of biofeedback in the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 311–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lehtinen, V., and Puhakka, H. (1976). A pschosomatic approach to the globus hystericus syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica, 53, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Levine, M. D., and Bakow, H. (1976). Children with encopresis: A study of treatment outcome. Pediatrics, 58, 845–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liss, J. L., Alpers, D., and Woodruff, R. A., Jr. (1973). The irritable colon syndrome and psychiatric illness. Diseases of the Nervous System, 34, 151–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lowery, S. P., Srour, J. W., Whitehead, W. E., and Schuster, M. M. (1985). Habit training as treatment of encopresis secondary to chronic constipation. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 4, 397–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MRC. ( 1978, December) Ad hoc meeting of faecal incontinence. Medical Research Council of Great Britain.Google Scholar
  64. MacLeod, J. H. (1979). Biofeedback in the management of partial anal incontinence: A preliminary report. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 22, 169–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacLeod, J. H. (1983). Biofeedback in the management of partial anal incontinence. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 26, 244–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Malcolmson, K. G. (1966). Radiological findings in globus hystericus. British Journal of Radiology, 39, 583–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Manning, A. P., Thompson, W. G., Heaton, K. W., and Morris, A. F. (1978). Towards positive diagnosis of the irritable bowel. British Medical Journal, 2, 653–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Martelli, H., Devroede, G., Arhan, P., and Duguay, C. (1978). Mechanisms of idiopathic constipation: Outlet obstruction. Gastroenterology, 75, 623–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mclllmurry, M. B., and Langman, M. J. S. (1975). Large bowel cancer: Causation and management. Gut, 17, 815–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mellow, M. (1977). Symptomatic diffuse esophageal spasm: Manometric follow-up and response to cholinergie stimulation and cholinesterase inhibition. Gastroenterology, 73, 237–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Milne, J. S. (1976). Prevalence of incontinence in the elderly age groups. In E. L. Willington (Ed.), Incontinence in the Elderly (pp. 9–21 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Monk, M., Mendelhoff, A. I., Siegel, C. I., and Lilienfeld, A. (1967). An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis among adults in Baltimore. I. Hospital incidence and prevalence, 1960 to 1963. Gastroenterology, 53, 198–210.Google Scholar
  73. Moore, J. G., and Schenkenberg, T. (1974). Psychic control of gastric acid: Response to anticipated feeding and biofeedback training in a man. Gastroenterology, 66, 954–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. National Center for Health Statistics. (1974). Mortality trends for leading causes of death, U.S., 1950–1969. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 20, No. 16 (DHEW Publication No. HRA 74–1853 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  75. Olness, K., McParland, F. A., and Piper, J. (1980) Biofeedback: A new modality in the management of children with fecal soiling. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 505–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Palmer, R. L., Stonehill, E., Crisp, A. H., Waller, S. L., and Misiewicz, J. J. (1974). Psychological characteristics of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 50, 416–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pazulinec, R., and Sajwaj, T. (1983). Psychological treatment approaches to psychogenic vomiting and rumination. In R. Hoelzl and W. E. Whitehead (Eds.), Psychophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract: Experimental and clinical applications (pp. 43–63 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterson, W. L., Sturdevant, R. A. L., Frankl, H. D., Richardson, C. T., Isenberg, J. I., Elashoff, J. D., Sones, J. Q., Gross, R. A., McCallum, R. W., and Fordtran, J. S. (1977). Healing of duodenal ulcer with an antacid regimen. New England Journal of Medicine, 297, 341–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pflanz, M. (1971). Epidemiological and sociocultural factors in the etiology of duodenal ulcer. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine, 6, 121–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Reboa, G., Piccardo, A., Giusto, F., and Riboli, E. R. ( 1982, September). Biofeedback: A new method for the recovery of continence in patients with permanent colostomy. Paper presented at The First European Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility, Bologna, Italy.Google Scholar
  81. Reboa, G., Piccardo, A., Frascio, M., Pitto, G., and Riboli, E. B. (1983). The biofeed-back: A new method for the recovery of continence in patients with permanent colostomy. In G. Labo and M. Bortolotti (Eds.), Gastrointestinal motility. Verona, Italy: Cortina International.Google Scholar
  82. Richard, W. C., and Fell, R. D. (1974). Health factors in police job stress. In W. H. Kroes and J. J. Hurrell (Eds.), Job stress and the police officer: Identifying stress reduction techniques. (HEW Publication No. NIOSH 76–187 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  83. Rubin, J., Nagler, R., Spiro, H. M., and Pilot, M. L. (1962). Measuring the effect of emotions on esophageal motility. Psychosomatic Medicine, 24, 170–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Schaefer, C. E. (1979). Childhood encopresis and enuresis: Causes and therapy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  85. Schiller, L. R., Santa Ana, C., Davis, G. R., Sr Fordtran, J. S. (1979). Fecal incontinence in chronic diarrhea. Report of a case with improvement after training with rectally infused saline. Gastroenterology, 77, 751–753.Google Scholar
  86. Schneider, C. ( 1983, March). Biofeedback treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  87. Scheurer, U., Witzel, L., Halter, F., Keller, H.-M., Huber, R., and Galeazzi, R. (1977). Gastric and duodenal ulcer healing under placebo treatment. Gastroenterology, 72, 838–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schuster, M. M. (1975). The riddle of the sphincters. Gastroenterology, 69, 249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schuster, M. M. (1977). Constipation and anorectal disorders. Clinics in Gastroenterology, 6, 643–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schuster, M. M., Nikoomanesh, P., and Wells, D. (1973). Biofeedback control of lower esophageal sphincter contraction. Rediconti di Gastroenterologia, 5, 14–18.Google Scholar
  91. Shay, S. S., Rosenthal, R., and Johnson, L. F. (1983, March). Biofeedback therapy of patients with chronic dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  92. Siegel, D., Tucker, H., Enck, P., Whitehead, W., and Schuster, M. M. (1984). Symptoms differentiating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) from other G.I. disoorders. Gastroenterology, 86, 1251.Google Scholar
  93. Singh, N. N. (1981). Rumination. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, Vol. 10. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  94. Snape, W. J., Jr., Carlson, G. M., and Cohen, S. (1976). Colonic myoelectric activity in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 70, 326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Spiegel, M. K., Johannes, R. S., Shapiro, M., Malley, J., and Hendrix, T. R. (1984). A prospective study of the symptom complex of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology, 86, 1263.Google Scholar
  96. Spiegelman, M., and Erhardt, C. L. (1974). Mortality in the United States by cause. In E. L. Erhardt and J. E. Berlin (Eds.), Mortality and morbidity in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Stacher, G., Steinringer, H., Blau, A., and Landgraf, M. (1979). Acoustically evoked esophageal contractions and defense reaction. Psychophysiology, 16, 234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Svedlund, J., Sjodin, I., Ottosson, J-O., and Dotevall, H. (1983). Controlled study of psychotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet, 2, 589–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Taylor, I., Darby, C., and Hammond, P. (1978). Comparison of rectosigmoid myoelectric activity in the irritable colon syndrome during relapses and remissions. Gut, 19, 923–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomas, T. M., Plymat, K. R., Blannin, J., and Meade, T. W. (1980). Prevalence of urinary incontinence. British Medical Journal, 281, 1243–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thompson, W. G., and Heaton, K. W. (1980). Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. Gastroenterology, 79, 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Thompson, W. G., and Heaton, K. W. (1982). Heartburn and globus in apparently healthy people. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 126, 46–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. van Baal, J. G., Leguit, P. Jr., and Brummelkamp, W. H. (1984). Relaxation biofeedback conditioning as treatment of a disturbed defecation reflex: Report of a case. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 27, 187–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Van Nostrand, J. F., Zappolo, A., Hing, E., Bloom, B., Hirsch, B., and Foley, D. J. (1979). The national nursing home survey: 1977 summary for the United States. (DHEW Publication No. PHS 79–1794 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Statistics Series 13–43.Google Scholar
  105. Wald, A. (1981a). Biofeedback therapy for fecal incontinence. Annals of Internal Medicine, 95, 146–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wald, A. (1981b). Use of biofeedback in treatment of fecal incontinence in patients with meningomyelocele. Pediatrics, 68, 45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wald, A. (1983). Biofeedback for neurogenic fecal incontinence: Rectal sensation is a de- terminant of outcome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 2, 302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wald, A., and Tunuguntla, A. K. (1984). Anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction in fecal incontinence and diabetes mellitus: Modification with biofeedback therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 310, 1282–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Walker, B. B., Lawton, C. A., and Sandman, C. A. (1978). Voluntary control of electrogastric activity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 610–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Watson, W. C., Sullivan, S. N., Corke, M., and Rush, D. (1974). Hypertonicity of the cricopharyngeal sphincter: A cause of globus sensation. Lancet, 2, 1417–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weinstock, S. A. (1976). The reestablishment of intestinal control in functional colitis. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Welgan, P. R. (1974). Learned control of gastric acid secretions in peptic ulcer patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 36, 411–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Welgan, P. R. (1977). Biofeedback control of stomach acid secretions and gastrointestinal reactions. In J. Beatty and H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  114. Welgan, P., Meshkinpour, H., and Hoehler, F. (1985). The effect of stress on colon motor and electrical activity in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine, 47, 139–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wesley, J. R., Coran, A. G., Sarahan, T. M., Klein, M. D., and White, S. J. (1981). The need for evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in brain-damaged children referred for feeding gastrostomy. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 16, 866–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Whitehead, W. E. (1978). Biofeedback in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 375–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Whitehead, W. E. (1985). Psychotherapy and biofeedback in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. In N. E. Read (Ed.), Irritable bowel syndrome. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  118. Whitehead, W. E., and Drescher, V. M. (1980). Perception of gastric contractions and self-control of gastric motility. Psychophysiology, 17, 552–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Whitehead, W. E., and Schuster, M. M. (1983). Manometric and electromyographic techniques for assessment of the anorectal mechanism for continence and defecation. In R. Hoelzl and W. E. Whitehead (Eds.), Psychophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract: Experimental and clinical applications (pp. 311–329 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Whitehead, W. E., and Schuster, M. M. (1985). Gastrointestinal Disorders: Behavioral and Physiological Basis for Treatment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  121. Whitehead, W. E., Renault, P. F., and Goldiamond, I. (1975). Modification of human gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Whitehead, W. E., Engel, B. T., and Schuster, M. M. (1980). Irritable bowel syndrome: Physiological and psychological differences between diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant patients. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 25, 404–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Whitehead, W. E., Orr, W. C., Engel, B. T., and Schuster, M. M. (1981). External anal sphincter response to rectal distention: Learned response or reflex. Psychophysiology, 19, 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Whitehead, W. E., Parker, L. H., Masek, B. J., Cataldo, M. F., and Freeman, J. M. (1981). Biofeedback treatment of fecal incontinence in patients with myelomenigocele. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 313–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Whitehead, W. E., Winget, C., Fedoravicius, A. S., Wooley, S., and Blackwell, B. (1982). Learned illness behavior in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 27, 202–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Whitehead, W. E., Burgio, K. L., and Engel, B. T. (1985) Biofeedback treatment of fecal incontinence in geriatric patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 33, 320–324.Google Scholar
  127. Whitehead, W. E., Parker, L. H., Bosmajian, L. S., Morrill-Corbin, E. D., Middaugh, S., Garwood, M., Cataldo, M. F., and Freeman, J. (1986) Treatment of fecal incontinence in children with spina bifida: Comparison of biofeedback and behavior modification. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 218–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Winship, D. H. (1978). Cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer: Review and commentary. Gastroenterology, 74, 402–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wolf, S., and Almy, T. P. (1949). Experimental observations on cardiospasm in man. Gastroenterology, 13, 401–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Young, G. C. (1973). The treatment of childhood encopresis by conditioned gastroileal reflex training. Behavior Research and Therapy, 11, 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Young, S. J., Alpers, D. H., Norland, C. C., and Woodruff, R. A., Jr. (1976). Psychiatric illness and the irritable bowel syndrome: Practical implications for the primary physician. Gastroenterology, 70, 162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Whitehead
    • 1
  • Marvin M. Schuster
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Division of Digestive DiseasesFrancis Scott Key Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations