In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity of Cyclopiazonic Acid (CPA)

  • Kenneth A. Voss
Part of the Biodeterioration Research book series (BIOR, volume 3)


There has been considerable interest in recent years concerning the relationships between mycotoxins and diseases of animals and humans. Most of this interest has centered upon the aflatoxins (Jelinek et al., 1989), however, the number of mycotoxins implicated as potential causes of disease has increased steadily. Jelinek et al. (1989) have recently reviewed the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in feeds and foods and concluded that expanded efforts to monitor mycotoxin concentrations, including cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), in foodstuffs be initiated. CPA is an indole tetramic acid that was first isolated by Holzapfel (1968). It is produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including A. flavus, A. tamarii, A. oryzae, A. versicolor, P. patulum, P. puberulum, P. veridicatum, P. crustosum and P. camemberti (Dorner et al., 1983; LeBars, 1979; Gallagher et al., 1978; Lansden and Davidson, 1983; Leistner and Pitt, 1977; Luk et al., 1977; Ohmomo et al., 1973; Orth et al., 1977; Rao and Husain, 1985; Still et al., 1978; Trucksess et al., 1987), which have been isolated from various commodities, meats, dried foods and nuts. However, only limited data regarding the natural occurrence of this mycotoxin is available. CPA has been found in the crust of camembert cheese (Still et al., 1978; LeBars et al., 1979). The highest concentration, 4 ppm, was found in a sample stored under unusual (five days at 25 °C) conditions (Still et al., 1978) and most samples contained considerably less CPA (0.1 to 1.5 ppm) (LeBars et al., 1979).


Penicillium Species Cyclopiazonic Acid Broiler Chick Tenuazonic Acid Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth A. Voss
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology and Mycotoxins Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of AgricultureRichard B. Russell Agricultural Research CenterAthensUSA

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