Changes in Cell Wall Components of White Pine and Maple by White-Rot Fungi

  • Terry L. Highley
  • Barbara L. Illman
Part of the Biodeterioration Research book series (BIOR, volume 3)


Few detailed studies have been made of the relative rates of removal of the structural components of wood (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) during decay by white-rot fungi. Kretsberg et al. (1971) showed that the total pentosans are destroyed faster than the cellulose, and the lignin more slowly than cellulose or pentosans, during the decay of spruce by the white-rot fungus Trametes trogii. Kirk and Highley (1973) found that the relative rates of removal of lignin and the other components by three white-rot fungi in conifer woods decayed in soil-block tests varied during the decay process. Their results suggested that removal of glucomannan may precede removal of cellulose as found in brown-rots, but that additional wood and fungus combinations are needed before it can be established whether this is a valid generalization for white-rots. For hardwoods, such detailed analysis seem to have been done only by Cowling (1961) who found that Coriolus versicolor removed lignin and carbohydrates at about the same rate in sweetgum. Removal of glucan, mannan, and xylan, however, was not determined until 25% weight loss.


Cell Wall Component Lignin Degradation Phanerochaete Chrysosporium Decay Resistance Cell Wall Constituent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Society for Testing and Materials. (1971). Standard method for accelerated laboratory test of natural decay resistance of woods. ASTM D 2017. Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanchette, R. A., Otjen, L. Effland, M. J., and Eslyn, W. E. (1985). Changes in structural and chemical components of wood delignified by fungi. Wood Sci. Technol., 19, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cowling, E. B. (1961). Comparative biochemistry of the decay of sweetgum sapwood by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. USDA Tech. Bull. 1925, 79 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Darbyshire, B., Wade, G. C., and Marshall, K. C. (1969). In virto studies of the role of nitrogen and sugars on the susceptibility of apple wood to decay by Trametes versicolor. Phytopathol. 59(1), 98–102.Google Scholar
  5. Dill, I. and Kraepelin, G. (1986). Palo podrido: Model for extensive delignification of wood by Ganoderma applanation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52(16), 1305–1312.Google Scholar
  6. Effland, M. J. (1977). Modified procedure to determine acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp. Tappi 60(10), 143–144.Google Scholar
  7. Ericksson, K.-E. (1978). Enzyme mechanisms involved in cellulose hydrolysis by the rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Biotech. Bioeng. XX, 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ericksson, K.-E. and Goodell, B. (1974). Pleiotropic mutants of the wood-rotting fungus Polyporus adustus lacking cellulase, mannanase and xylanase. Can. J. Microbiol. 20, 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Highley, T. L. (1973a). Effect of alkaline treatment on decay resistance of wood. Forest Prod. J. 23, 47–51.Google Scholar
  10. Highley, T. L. (1973b). Influence of carbon source on cellulase activity of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Wood Fiber. 5(1), 50–58.Google Scholar
  11. Highley, T. L. (1976). Hemicellulase of white-and brown-rot fungi in relation to host preferences. Mat. und Org. 11(1), 33–46.Google Scholar
  12. Highley, T. L. (1982). Influence of type and amount of lignin on decay by Coriolus versicolor. Can. J. For. Res. 12, 435–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Highley, T. L. (1987). Change in Chemical components of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungi. Mat. und Org. 22(1), 39–45.Google Scholar
  14. Kelly, R. C, and Reddy, C. A. (1986). Identification of glucose oxidase activity as the primary source of hydrogen peroxide production in ligninolytic cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch. of Microbiol. 144(31), 248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirk, T. K., and Highley, T. L. (1973). Quantitative changes in structural components of conifer woods during decay by white-and brown-rot fungi. Phytopathol. 63, 1338–1342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirk, T. K. and Moore, W. E. (1972) Removing lignin from wood with white-rot fungi and digestiblity of resulting wood. Wood Fiber. 4, 72–79.Google Scholar
  17. Kirk, T. K., Schultz, E., Lorenz, L. F., and Zeikus, J. G. (1978). Influence of culture parameters on lignin metabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch. Microbiol. 117, 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kretsberg, Z. N., Sengeeva, V. N., and Grabovski, Ya. K. (1971). Investigation of wood destroyed by enzymes. IV. The effect of Trametes trogii on spruce wood. (In Russian). Khim. Drev. 7, 115–118.Google Scholar
  19. Levi, M. P. and Cowling, E. B. (1969). Role of nitrogen in wood deterioration. VII. Physiological adaptation of wood-destroying and other fungi to substrate deficient in nitrogen. Phytopathol. 59, 460–468.Google Scholar
  20. Moore, W.E. and Johnson, D.B. (1967). Procedure for the chemical chemical analysis of wood and wood products (as used at the U.S. For. Prod. Lab.). USDA For. Serv., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  21. Park, D. (1976). Nitrogen level and cellulose decomposition by fungi. Int. Biodetn. Bull. 12(3), 95–99.Google Scholar
  22. Petterson, C. A. and Cowling, B. (1964). Decay resistance of extractive free coniferous woods to white-rot fungi. Phytopathol. 54, 542–547.Google Scholar
  23. Petterson, R. C, Schwandt, V. H., and Effland, M. J. (1984). An analyses of the wood sugar assay using HPLC: A comparison with paper chromatography. J. Chromat. Sci. 22, 478–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reid, I. D. (1983). Effects of nitrogen sources on cellulose and synthetic lignin degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45, 830–837.Google Scholar
  25. Springer, E. L. (1966). Hydrolysis of aspen wood xylan with aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid. Tappi 49, 102–106.Google Scholar
  26. Timmeil, T. (1967). Recent progress in the chemistry of wood hemicelluloses. Wood Sci. Technol. 1, 45–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry L. Highley
    • 1
  • Barbara L. Illman
    • 1
  1. 1.Forest Products LaboratoryUSDA, Forest ServiceMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations