Ionization of Wood During Previsual Stages of Wood Decay

  • Walter C. Shortle
Part of the Biodeterioration Research book series (BIOR, volume 3)

Abstract

The wood decay process has both visual and previsual stages. Visual stages include both wood discoloration and the loss of structural integrity. Prior to the appearance of visual stages, wood undergoing the decay process is altered. These previsual alterations affect wood properties such as the accumulation of ions and decay resistance in vitro (Shortle and Smith, 1987; Smith, 1987).

Keywords

Tissue Electrical Resistance Black Cherry Coriolus Versicolor Alkali Solubility Visual Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Society for Testing and Materials. (1987). Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 04.09, 293-294.Google Scholar
  2. Cowling, E.B. (1961). Comparative Biochemistry of the Decay of Sweetgum Sapwood by White-rot and Brown-rot Fungi. USDA Forest Service Tech. Bull No. 1258, 79 p.Google Scholar
  3. Horowitz, W., ed. (1960). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 9th ed. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Kirk, T.K. and Farrell, R.L. (1987). Enzymatic “combustion”: the microbial degradation of lignin. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 41, 465–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Shevenell, B.J. and Shortle, W.C. (1986). An ion profile of wounded red maple. Phytopathology, 76, 132–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Shigo, A.L. and Shortle, W.C. (1985). Shigometry: A Reference Guide. USDA Forest Service Agric. Handbook No. 646, 48 p.Google Scholar
  7. Shortle, W.C. (1982). Decaying Douglas-fir wood: ionization associated with resistance to a pulsed electric current. Wood Science, 15, 29–32.Google Scholar
  8. Shortle, W.C. and Bauch, J. (1986). Wood characteristics of Abies balsamea in the New England states compared to Abies alba from sites in Europe with decline problems. IAWA Bulletin, 7, 375–387.Google Scholar
  9. Shortle, W.C. and Hill, J.L. (1987). Ionized oak heartwood associated with checking during kilm drying. Holzforschung, 41, 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shortle, W.C. and Minocha, R. (1990). Applications of ion chromatography to study pollution effects on forest trees. Adv. Ion Chromotography, in press.Google Scholar
  11. Shortle, W.C. and Smith, K.T. (1987). Electrical properties and rate of decay in spruce and fir wood. Phytopathology, 77, 811–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Smith, K.T. (1987). Electrical resistance and previsual decay detection. In: Proc. Sixth Symposium on the Nondestructive Testing of Wood, pp. 125–135, Engineering Publications, Conferences and Institutes, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
  13. Smith, K.T. (1989). Dynamics of decay in trees and timber. Biodeterioration Research 2, 435–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Smith, K.T., Blanchard, R.O., and Shortle, W.C. (1981). Postulated mechanism of biological control of decay fungi in red maple wounds treated with Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology, 71, 496–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stamm, A.J. (1961). A comparison of three methods for determining the pH of wood and paper. Forest Prod. J., 11, 310–312.Google Scholar
  16. Tatter, T.A. and Rich, A.E. (1973). Extractable phenols in clear, discolored, and decayed woody tissues and bark of sugar maple and red maple. Phytopathology, 63, 167–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tatter, T.A., Shortle, W.C., and Rich, A.E. (1971). Sequence of microorganisms and changes in constituents associated with discoloration and decay of sugar maples infected with fomes connatus. Phytopathology, 61, 556–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Taylor, R., Llewellyn, G.C., Mayfield, J.E., Shortle, W.C., and Dashek, W.V. (1988a). Time-dependent appearance of extracellular polyphenol ozidase in relation to catechol-induced bimodal growth response of Coriolus versicolor. Biodeterioration Research 1., pp. 63–74, Plenum Press, NY.Google Scholar
  19. Taylor, R., Llewellyn, G.C., O’Rear, C.E., Mayfield, J.E., Smith, K.T., Williams, A.L., and Dashek, W.V. (1989). In vitro growth of Coriolus versicolor, a wood-decay fungus, responds differentially to catechol and tannic acid. Biodeterioration Research 2, pp. 451–464, Plenum Press, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Taylor, R., Mayfield, J.E., Shortle, W.C., Llewellyln, G.C., and Dashek, W.V. (1988b). Attempts to determine whether the products of extracellular polyphenol oxidase modulate the catechol-induced bimodal growth resp[onse of Coriolus versicolor. Biodeterioration Research 1, pp. 43–62, Plenum Press, NY.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter C. Shortle
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations