The Effects of Patulin on the Development of Oncopeltus fasciatus

  • G. Craig Llewellyn
  • Gerald C. Llewellyn
Part of the Biodeterioration Research book series (BIOR, volume 3)


Patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2) pyran-2(6H)-one) (Figure 1) has been shown to be a potent antibiotic with toxic effects in in vitro and in vivo studies (Kawasaki et al., 1972; Lindroth and von Wright, 1978; Oswald et al., 1978; Sorenson et al., 1985). Patulin is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Patulin was identified in 1942 by Wiesner, who observed its antibacterial activity when isolated from an Aspergillus clavatus culture. The compound was given the appropriate name “clavicin”. Today both “clavicin” and “patulin” are commonly substituted. Patulin is considered a mycotoxin because of its toxicity and possible carcinogenic effects on higher life forms (Becci et al., 1981).


Penicillic Acid Aspergillus Clavatus Nymph Survival Oncopeltus Fasciatus Carolina Biological Supply Company 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Becci, P.J., Hess, F.G., Johnson, W.D., Gallo, M.A., Babish, J.G., Daily, R.E., and Parent, R.A., (1981). Long term carcinogenicity and toxicity studies of patulin in the rat. J. Appl. Toxicol., 1, 256–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chinnici, J.P., Booker, M.A., and Llewellyn, G.C., (1976). Effect of Aflatoxin B-on viability, growth, fertility, and crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera). J. Invert. Pathol. 27, 255–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gaston, J.Q., and Llewellyn, G.C., (1980). Sex-determined differential mortality of milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxins. J. Invert. Pathol. 35, 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jelnik, C.F., Pohland, A.E., and Wood, G.E., (1989). Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds— An Update. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 72, 223–230.Google Scholar
  5. Kawasaki, I., Oki, T., Umeda, M., and Saito, M. (1972). Cytotoxic effect of penicillic acid and patulin on HeLa cells. Jpn. J. Exp. Med., 42, 327–340.Google Scholar
  6. Keilova-Rodova, H. (1949). The effect of patulin on tissue cultures. Experientia, 6, 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lindroth, S., and von Wright, A. (1978). Comparison of the toxicities of patulin and patulin adducts formed with cysteine. Appl Environ. Microbiol., 35, 1003–1007.Google Scholar
  8. Llewellyn, G.C., and Chinnici, J.P. (1978) Variation in sensitivity to aflatoxin B1 among several strains of Drosphila melanogaster (Diptera). J. Invert. Pathol. 31, 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Llewellyn, G.C., Gee, C.L., and Sherertz, P.C. (1988) Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) to aflatoxin B1. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 40, 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Llewellyn, G.C., Stephenson, G.A., and Hofman, J.W. (1977) Aflatoxin B1 induced toxicity and teratogenicity in Japanese medaka eggs (Oryzias Latipes). Toxicon 15, 582–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Osswald, H., Frank, H.K., Komitowski, D., and Winter, H. (1978). Long term testing of patulin administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss mice. Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 16, 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sorenson, W.G., Simpson, J., and Castranova, V. (1985). Toxicity of the mycotoxin patulin for rat alveolar macrophages. Environ. Res., 38, 407–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sherertz, P.C., Mills, R.R., and Llewellyn, G.C. (1978) Comparative dietary patterns and body weight changes in adult male american cockroaches fed pure aflatoxin B1. Bull. Environm. Toxicol. 20, 687–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Craig Llewellyn
    • 1
  • Gerald C. Llewellyn
    • 2
  1. 1.Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Virginia Department of HealthBureau of Toxic SubstancesRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations