Production of Aflatoxin in a High Moisture Maize Silo in Minnesota

  • Richard A. Meronuck
  • Steven P. Swanson
Part of the Biodeterioration Research book series (BIOR, volume 4)

Abstract

Mycotoxicosis resembling aflatoxicosis in dairy cattle has been known for some time. Sipple et al. (1953) reported that cows eating moldy maize rations were depressed, off-feed, and had diarrhea containing blood. A necropsy of one of the afflicted cows revealed an enlarged liver spotted with light yellow areas. Loosmore and Markson (1961) reported that after consuming aflatoxincontaminated peanut meal for 3–4 months, dairy cows lost their appetite and suffered reduced milk yield, especially after calving. Loosmore et al. (1964) found that cows fed aflatoxin-contaminated cottonseed meal went off-feed resulting in milk production decreases of 25 to 50% after 3–4 weeks. When the aflatoxin-contaminated cottonseed was removed from the ration, the cows were back to normal in a week. The cattle most severely affected were those which had calved 4–6 months, previously. Gopal et al. (1968) reported that peanut meal associated with deaths in a dairy herd was found to contain aflatoxin. Clinical signs included: anorexia, apathy, corneal opacity, intermittent diarrhea, and reduction or absence of milk yield. According to Guthrie (1979), cows fed aflatoxin-contaminated maize showed the following signs: diarrhea; acute mastitis; metritis; respiratory disorders; erratic milk production; abortions; hair loss; depressed appetite; and unthrifty appearance.

Keywords

Milk Yield Dairy Cattle Dairy Herd Corneal Opacity Peanut Meal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Applebaum, R.S., Brackett, R.E., Wiseman, D.W., and Marth, E.H. (1982). Aflatoxin: toxicity to dairy cattle and occurrence in milk and milk products: a review. J. Food Prot., 45, 752–777.Google Scholar
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1980). Official Methods of Analysis, 13th ed. Secs. 26.049–26–051, p. 421.Google Scholar
  3. Bodine, A.B. and Mertens, D.R. (1983). Toxicology, metabolism, and physiological effects of aflatoxin in the bovine. In: Aflatox in andGoogle Scholar
  4. Aspergillus flavus in Corn, pp. 46–50. (U.L. Diener, R.L. Asquith, and J.W. Dickens, eds.), Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 279, Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep., Auburn Univ. AL.Google Scholar
  5. Christensen, C.M., and Meronuck, R.A. (1986). Quality Maintenance in Stored Grains and Seeds. p. 107, Univ. of Minn. Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  6. Gopal, T., Zaki, S., Narayanaswami, M. and Premiata, S. (1968). Aflatoxicosis in dairy cattle. Indian. Vet., 45, 707–712.Google Scholar
  7. Guthrie, L.D. (1979). Effects of aflatoxin in corn on production and reproduction in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 62, 134.Google Scholar
  8. Lillehoj, E.B. (1983). Effect of environmental and cultural factors on aflatoxin contamination of developing corn kernels, In: Aflatoxin and Aspergillus flavus in Corn, pp. 27–34 (U.L. Diener, R.L. Asquith, and J.W. Dickens, eds.), Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 279, Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn Univ., AL.Google Scholar
  9. Loosmore, R.M., Markson, L.M. (1961). Poisoning of cattle by Brazilian groundnut meal. Vet. Rec., 73, 813–814.Google Scholar
  10. Loosmore, T.M., Allcroft, R., Tutton, E.A., and Carnaghan, R.B.A. (1964). The presence of aflatoxin in a sample of cotton-seed cake. Vet. Res., 76, 64–65.Google Scholar
  11. Moss, M.O. (1991). The environmental factors controlling mycotoxin formation, In: Mycotoxins and Animal Foods. pp. 37–56 ( J.E. Smith, and R.H. Henderson, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  12. Raisbeck, M.F., Rottinghaus, G.E., and Kendall, J.D. (1991). Effects of naturally occurring mycotoxins on ruminants. In: Mycotoxins and Animal Foods. pp. 647–688. ( J.E. Smith, and R.S. Henderson, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  13. Richard, J.L., Pier, A.C., Stubblefield, R.D., Shotwell, O.L., Lyon, R.L., and Cutlip, R.C. (1983). Effect of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin on feed efficiency, on physiologic, immunologic and pathologic changes, and on tissue residues in steers. Am. J. Vet. Res., 44, 12941299.Google Scholar
  14. Sipple, W.L., Burnside, J.E., and Attwood, M.B. (1953). A disease of swine and cattle caused by eating moldy corn. Proc. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 90, 174181.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Meronuck
    • 1
  • Steven P. Swanson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology, College of AgricultureUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Department of Drug MetabolismEli Lilly and Co.IndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations