Transformation of Inorganic N-Oxides by Denitrifying and Nitrifying Bacteria
The inorganic nitrogen cycle (Fig. 1) consists of several linked biological processes and one abiological process, the reaction of N2 and O2 in lightning discharges (and internal combustion engines) to produce NOx and, ultimately, nitrate. All of the processes except nitrogen fixation involve reduction or oxidation of species containing N-O bonds of order greater than one, such as NO− 3, NO− 2, NO, and N2O. Except for the assimilatory reduction of nitrite to ammonium, which is a complex six-electron process that is unique in nitrogen biochemistry, the reactions of inorganic N-oxides are of potential interest as relatively well-studied paradigms that may be relevant to aspects of biological degradation of nitroaromatic compounds. One might expect the existence of analogous chemistry in the reduction of NO− 2 or HNO2 and ArNO2 (where Ar is a general abbreviation for an aromatic group). Certainly both the inorganic and organic species contain nitrogen in the same oxidation state (+ 3), and they also contain two N-O bonds that possess at least partial multiple bond character.
KeywordsNitrate Reductase Nitrite Reductase Nitroaromatic Compound Ammonia Mono Oxygenase Nitrosomonas Europaea
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Abraham, Z. H. L., D. J. Lowe, and B. E. Smith. 1993. Purification and characterization of the dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (NCIMB 11015). Evidence for the presence of both type-1 and type-2 copper centers. Biochem. J. 295:587–593.Google Scholar
- 5.Chan, S. 1., and H.-H. T. Nguyen. 1994. Insights into the nature of the copper sites in particulate methane monooxygenase from EPR and magnetic measurements, abstr. PHYS-49. Abstr. 208th Natl. Mtg. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- 8.Demastia, M., T. Turk, and T. C. Hollocher. 1991. Nitric oxide reductase. Purification from Paracoccus denitrificans with use of a single column and some characteristics. J. Biol. Chem. 266:10899–10905.Google Scholar
- 10.Fukuoka, M., Y. Fukumori, and T. Yamanaka. 1987. Nitrobacter winogradskyi cytochrome a 1 c 1 is an iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme having hemes a and c. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 102:525–530.Google Scholar
- 16.Hooper, A. B. 1989. Biochemistry of the nitrifying lithotropic bacteria, p. 239–265. In H. G. Schlegel and B. Bowein, (ed.) Autotrophic bacteria. Science Technology Publishers, Madison.Google Scholar
- 25.Lui, S. M., W. Liang, A. Soriano, and J. A. Cowan. 1994. Enzymatic reduction of inorganic anions. Variable-temperature steady-state and presteady-state kinetics experimenls to map the energy profile of an enzymatic multielectron redox reaction. Application lo the dissimilaiory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116:4531–4536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Miller, D. J., and D. J. D. Nicholas. 1985. Characterization of a soluble cytochrome oxidase/nitrite reductase from Nitrosomonas europaea. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:2851–2854.Google Scholar
- 27.Miller, D. J., and P. M. Wood. 1983. The soluble cytochrome oxidase of Nitrosomonas europaea. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:1645–1650.Google Scholar
- 32.Wood. P. M. 1988. Chemolitholropy, p. 183–230. In C. Anthony (ed.) Bacterial energy transduction. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- 34.Ye, R. W., B. A. Averill, and J. M. Tiedje. 1992. Characterization of Tn5 mutants deficieni in dissimilaiory nilrite reduction in Pseudomonas sp. strain G179, which conlains a copper nitrite reductase. J. Bacleriol. 174:6653–6658.Google Scholar
- 36.Ye, R. W., I. Toro-Suarez, J. M. Tiedje, and B. A. Averill. 1991. H2 18O isotope exchange studies on the mechanism of reduction of nitric oxide and nitrite to nitrous oxide by denitrifying bacteria: evidence for an electrophilic nitrosyl during reduction of nitric oxide. J. Biol. Chem. 266:12848–12851.PubMedGoogle Scholar