Memory Assessment and Remediation in Brain-Injured Patients

From Theory to Practice
  • Jordan Grafman
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


This chapter will describe an approach to the assessment of memory deficits and the subsequent application of cognitive strategies/mnemonic techniques to the remediation of those deficits. We will be concerned primarily with the amnesic deficits encountered in brain-damaged patients. Amnesia can be defined loosely as the inability to retrieve information that was once comprehended and/or learned. As will be demonstrated below, there are numerous types of “amnesic deficits” depending upon injury locale and, in turn, the sensory modalities and cognitive processes represented by the involved neural system(s).


Memory Deficit Visual Imagery Retrograde Amnesia Human Information Processing Anterograde Amnesia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J. R. Language, memory and thought. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. Human associative memory. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spence & J. Spence (Eds.), Advances in the psychology of learning and motivation research and theory (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8). New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A. D., & Warrington, E. K. Memory coding and amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbizet, J. Human memory and its pathology. San Francisco: Freeman, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. Basso, A., Capitani, E., & Vignolo, L. A. Influence of rehabilitation language skills in aphasic patients. Archives of Neurology, 1979, 36, 190–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjork, R. A. The updating of human memory. In Bower, G. H. (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 12). New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. Bond, M. R. Assessment of psychosocial outcome after severe head injury. In CIBA Foundation Symposium 34 (new series), Outcome of severe damage to the central nervous system. New York: American Elsevier, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Bower, G. H. A selective review of organizational factors in memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, J. A. Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly journal of Experimental Psychology, 1958, 10, 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butters, N., & Cermak, L. S. Alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome: An information-processing approach to amnesia. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. Butters, N., Samuels, I., Goodglass, H., & Brody, B. Short-term visual and auditory memory disorders after parietal and frontal lobe damage. Cortex, 1970, 6, 440–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cermak, L. S. Human memory: Research and theory. New York: Ronald Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  15. Cermak, L. S. Imagery as an aid to retrieval for Korsakoff patients. Cortex, 1975, 11, 163–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cermak, L. S. Amnesia patient’s level of processing. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Cermak, L. S., & Craik, F. I. M. (Eds.). Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. Corkin, S. Acquisition of motor skill after bilateral medial temporal-lobe excision. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crovitz, H. F., & Harvey, M. T. Case report: Memory retraining in a woman with anterograde amnesia after cerebrovascular accident using relaxation and home-practice in visual imagery mnemonics. Unpublished manuscript, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. Crovitz, H. F., & Harvey, M. T., & Horn, R. W. Problems in the acquisition of imagery mnemonics: Three brain damaged cases. Cortex, 1979, 15, 225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deutsch, D., & Deutsch, J. A. Short term memory, New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. DeWied, D., & Versteeg, D. H. G. Neurohypophysical principles and memory. Federation Proceedings, 1979, 38, 2348–2354.Google Scholar
  24. Drachman, D. A. Memory and cognitive function in man: Does the cholinergic system have a specific role? Neurology, 1977, 27, 783–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drachman, D. A. Experimental Aging Research, 1978, 4(4), 233–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flavell, J. H., & Wellman, H. M. Metamemory. In R. V. Kail, Jr., & J. W. Hogen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Gasparrini, B., & Satz, P. A treatment for memory problems in left hemipshere CVA patients. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, 1, 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gianutsos, R., & Gianutsos, J. Rehabilitating the verbal recall of brain injured patients by mnemonic training: An experimental demonstration using single-case methodology. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, 1, 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glanzer, M., & Cunitz, A. R. Two storage mechanisms in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glasgow, R. E., Zeiss, R. A., Barrera, M., Jr., & Lewinsohn, P. M. Case studies on remediating memory deficits in brain injured individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977, 33, 1049–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hersen, M., & Barlow, D. H. Single case experimental designs: Strategies for studying behavioral change, New York: Pergamon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. Horel, J. A. The neuroanatomy of amnesia: A critique of the hippocampal memory hypothesis. Brain, 1978, 101, 403–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Isaacson, R. L. The limbic system. New York: Plenum Press, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jacoby, L. L., & Craik, F. I. M. Effect of elaboration of processing at encoding and retrieval: Trace distinctiveness and recovery of initial context. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, M. K. Imagery as a mnemonic aid after left temporal lobectomy: Contrast between material-specific and generalized memory disorders. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jones-Gotman, M., & Milner, B. Design fluency: The invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 653–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kintsch, W. Memory and cognition. New York: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  38. Levin, H. S., O’Donnell, V. M., & Grossman, R. G. The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1979, 167, 675–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lewinsohn, P. M., & Graf, M. A follow-up study of persons referred for vocational rehabilitation who have suffered brain damage. Journal of Community Psychology, 1973, 1, 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lewinsohn, P. M., Danaher, B. G., & Kikel, S. Visual imagery as a mnemonic aid for brain injured persons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 717–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewinsohn, P. M., Glasgow, R. E., Barrera, M., Danaher, B. G., Alperson, J., McCarty, D. L., Sullivan, J. M., Zeiss, R. A., Nyland, J., & Rodrigues, M. R. P. Assessment and treatment of patients with memory deficits. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 1977, 7, 79. (Manuscript No. 1538.)Google Scholar
  42. Luria, A. R. The neuropsychology of memory. Washington, D.C.: Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  43. Meudell, P. R., & Mayes, A. R. Do alcoholic amnesic patients passively rehearse verbal information? Brain and Language, 1980, 10, 189–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, E. Abnormal aging: The psychology of senile and presenile dementia. London: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  45. Milner, B. Memory. (From Milner, B., & Teuber, H. L., Alteration of perception and memory in man: Reflections on methods.) In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Analysis of behavioral change. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.Google Scholar
  46. Milner, B. Hemispheric specialization. In F. O. Schmitt & F. G. Worden (Eds.), Scope and limits, in the neurosciences Third Study Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  47. Minsky, M. L. A framework for representing knowledge. In P. Winston (Ed.), The psychology of computer vision. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.Google Scholar
  48. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton Century Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  49. Oscar-Berman, M. The neuropsychological consequences of long-term chronic alcoholism. American Scientist, 1980, 68, 410–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Pavio, A. Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, 1971.Google Scholar
  51. Pavio, A., Yuille, J. C., & Madigan, S. A. Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns. Journal of Experimental Psychology Monograph, 1968, 76 (1, Pt. 2).Google Scholar
  52. Patten, B. M. The ancient art of memory: Usefulness in treatment. Archives of Neurology, 1972, 26, 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peters, B. H. & Levin, H. S. Memory enhancement after physostigmine treatment in the amnestic syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 1977, 34, 215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peterson, L. R., & Peterson, M. J. Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959, 58, 193–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prigatano, G. P. Wechsler Memory Scale: A selective review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1978, 34, 816–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Poon, L. W. A systems approach for the assessment and treatment of memory problems. In J. Ferguson & C. B. Taylor (Eds.), Advances in behavioral medicine. New York: Spectrum, 1980.Google Scholar
  57. Poon, L. W., Walsh-Sweeney, L., & Fozard, J. L. Memory skill training for the elderly: Salient issues on the use of imagery mnemonics. In L. W. Poon, J. L. Fozard, L. S. Cermak, D. Arenberg, & L. W. Thompson (Eds.), New directions in memory and aging: Proceedings of the George A. Talland Memorial Conference. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1980.Google Scholar
  58. Rosch, E. Cognitive references points. Cognitive Psychology, 1975, 7, 532–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Russell, W. R. The traumatic amnesias. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  60. Samuels, I., Butters, N., & Goodglass, H. Visual memory deficits following cortical and limbic lesions: Effect of field presentation. Physiology and Behavior, 1971, 6, 447–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Samuels, I., Butters, N., Goodglass, H., & Brody, B. A comparison of subcortical and cortical damage on short term visual and auditory memory. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 293–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Samuels, I., Butters, N., & Fedio, P. Short term memory disorders following temporal lobe removals in humans. Cortex, 1972, 8, 283–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sarno, M. T., & Levita, E. Natural course of recovery in severe aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine, 1971, 52, 175–178.Google Scholar
  64. Schank, R., & Abelson, R. Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  65. Schuell, H. Aphasia theory and therapy. In Selected lectures and papers of Hildred Schuell. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  66. Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1957, 20, 11–21.Google Scholar
  67. Shallice, T., & Warrington, E. K. Auditory-verbal short term memory impairment and conduction aphasia. Brain and Language, 1977, 4, 479–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 127–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shore, D. L. Memory deficit remediation in patients with unilateral brain damage. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1979, 60, 542. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  70. Strub, R. L., & Gardner, H. The repetition defect in conduction aphasia: Mnestic or linguistic? Brain and Language, 1974, 1, 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Talland, G. A. Deranged memory: A psychonomic study of the amnesic syndrome. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  72. Timming, R. C., Cayner, J. J., Grady, S., Grafman, J., Haskin, R., Malec, J., & Thornsen, C. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation in severe head trauma. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 1980, 79, 49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.) Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. Tulving, E. Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  75. Tulving, E., & Thomson, D. M. Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 352–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warrington, E. K. The selective impairment of semantic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975, 27, 635–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. An analysis of short term and long term memory defects in man. In J. A. Deutsch (Ed.), The physiological basis of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  78. Wechsler, D., & Stone, C. P. Wechsler Memory Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1945.Google Scholar
  79. Wertz, R. T., Collins, M., Weiss, D., Brookshire, R. H., Friden, T., Kurtzke, J. F., & Pierce, J. Veterans Administration cooperative study on aphasia: A preliminary report on a comparison of individual and group treatment. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., February 1978.Google Scholar
  80. Whitty, C. W. M., & Zangwill, O. L. Amnesia. Boston: Butterworth’s, 1977.Google Scholar
  81. Wood, G. Mnemonic systems in recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1967, 58(6), 1–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zarit, S. Helping an aging patient to cope with memory problems. Geriatrics, 1979, 4, 82–90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordan Grafman
    • 1
  1. 1.Vietnam Head Injury Study, Department of Clinical InvestigationWalter Reed Army Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations