HIV Disease

Brain—Behavior Relationships
  • Igor Grant
  • John R. Hesselink
  • Caroline J. Kennedy
  • J. Hampton AtkinsonIII


The earliest reports in the literature of the syndrome we now term acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) date to 1981.1,2 Although the initial focus was, and continues to be, the consequences of deficiency of cell-mediated immunity in terms of multiple opportunistic infections, and susceptibility to neoplasia such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and lymphomas, reports of neuropsychiatric complications began appearing as early as 1982. Horowitz et al.3 described nine patients with retinopathy, seven of whom had neurological involvement, which included mental status changes and seizures. These investigators commented that cerebral atrophy and focal lesions were seen on some of the computed tomography (CT) scans and that pathological findings in the three cases that went on to autopsy included acute necrotizing encephalitis with vasculitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), multifocal necrotizing toxoplasmosis, and multifocal cerebritis. Britton et al.4 described four homosexual men with neurological complications. Three of these patients had organic psychosis with paranoid delusions, hostility, and agitation. One of these three also had quadriparesis, resting tremor, rigidity, and dystonia. All three patients had generalized seizures. Autopsy in three of these cases showed changes consistent with encephalitis, and it was suggested that CMV was implicated. A fourth case presented with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with papovavirus being documented at biopsy.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Grant
    • 1
    • 2
  • John R. Hesselink
    • 1
    • 3
  • Caroline J. Kennedy
    • 1
    • 4
  • J. Hampton AtkinsonIII
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychiatry ServiceSan Diego Veterans Administration Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San Diego, School of MedicineLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of California, San Diego, School of MedicineLa JollaUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of California, San Diego, School of MedicineLa JollaUSA

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